Stock (n.), to put stock in, to take stock in, to take stock of

Stock 當名詞用時主要意為「現貨,存貨;公債,股票」。就「現貨,存貨」的意思而言,in stock 和 out of stock 是我們常見的兩個片語,前者意為「有現貨或存貨的」,如 Have you have any of the blue shirts in stock? (你們有藍襯衫的存貨嗎?);後者意為「沒有現貨或存貨的」,如 So many people have bought bikes that the store is now out of stock. (那麼多人買腳踏車,商店現在已經沒貨了)。此外,take stock 這個片語中的 stock 也是這意思,而 take stock 意為「盤點 (存貨)」,如 The food store took stock every week. (這家食品店每週盤點存貨)。

至於「公債,股票」的意思,許多數人對 stock 是再熟悉也不過了。股票的英文也常用 share 來表示,我們甚至可以將 stock 和 share 寫在一起,但它們有慣用的前後順序,不可顛倒 – 正確的寫法是 stocks and shares,不可寫成 shares and stocks – 如 He invested his savings in stocks and shares. (他將存款投資在股票上)。

To put stock in 和 to take stock in 都是美國的慣用語,兩者同義,意為「相信」:I put (or take) no stock in what you say. (我不相信他所說的話);I don’t put (or take) much stock in fortunetellers. (我不大相信算命的人)。顯然地,這兩個片語大多用在否定式。

To take stock of 意為「估計,估量 (情勢);對…做出判斷」:You have to take stock of your position. (你必須衡量一下你的處境);Let’s sit back and take stock of the situation. (讓我們坐下來估量一下情勢)。若不接受詞,則這片語就變成 to take stock,與意為「盤點」的 to take stock 寫法相同。換言之,to take stock 有兩個意思,視上下文而定。

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