Born, borne (past participle, adj.)

Bear 是個相當常用的動詞,主要意為「忍受,忍耐,容忍 (通常用於否定或疑問句);帶有,具有,印有,寫有,刻有;運送,攜帶;(對某人) 懷有 (某種感受,如懷恨);生 (孩子)」。bear 的過去式為 bore,過去分詞為 borne,但作「生,生育」(to give birth) 之意時,它的過去分詞則有兩種型態:born 和 borne。

當 bear 意為「生,生育」時,born 都用在沒有 by 的被動態且當分詞形容詞用,如 He was born in Japan. (他在日本出生);The twins were born on February 15, 1969. (這對雙胞胎生於 1969 年 2 月 15 日);The baby was born to a very young woman. (這嬰兒是一位年紀非常輕的女子所生);Amy was born into a large/wealthy family. (艾美出生於一個大家庭/富裕家庭) — 請注意上面四個例句中介系詞 (in, on, to 和 into) 的用法。當形容詞用的 born 除了「出生的,誕生的」意思外,還意為「天生的,生來就有的,有天才的,命中注定的」,如 She was considered a born movie star. (她被視為天生的電影明星);He is a born leader/writer. (他是天生領袖/天才作家);She was born to succeed. (她命中注定會成功的)。注意:當 born 意為「出生的」時,be born to 後接名詞或名詞片語 (to 為介系詞),而當 born 意為「命中注定的」時,be born to 後接原形動詞 (to 為不定詞)。

當 bear 意為「生,生育」時,borne 僅當過去分詞用,主詞都是 mother, woman 或 she,如 The woman has borne three sons. (這位女人已生了三個兒子),She had borne six children. (她生過六個小孩),而且只能用於主動態,換言之,上面的例句 The baby was born to a very young woman. 不可寫成 The baby was borne to a very young woman.。

如上所述,在 bear 的其他意思上,不管動詞是主動還是被動,它的過去分詞恆為 borne,如 He has borne a grudge for many years. (他已懷恨多年);They had borne enough pain. (他們已忍受了過多的痛苦);The prisoner’s story was borne out by his wife. (那囚犯的供述為他的妻子所證實);The following points should be borne in mind. (下列要點要記住)。to bear out 和 bear in mind 都是常用的片語,前者意為「證實,為…作證,支持 (某種說法)」,後者意為「記住;考慮」。事實上,borne 亦可當形容詞用,但僅用在 “be borne in on/upon somebody” 這片語以及與名詞連用所構成的形容詞中,前者意為「為某人所意識到;為某人所瞭解」,後者意為「由…所攜帶的;由…所傳播的」:Slowly it was borne in on the citizens that the enemy had surrounded them. (市民漸漸意識到敵人已經包圍了他們);Some plants have windborne seeds. (有些植物靠風傳播種子);Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease. (瘧疾是由蚊子傳播的疾病);airborne pollution (空氣傳播的污染);airborne supply (空中補給);airborne troops ( 空降部隊)。

拼字錯誤的情況經常發生,尤其是當 bear 意為「生,生育」而用法是被動態或形容詞時,born 往往被誤寫成 borne。

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