過去條件句

過去事實條件句

句型:

1. If / When … 過去簡單式 …, … 過去簡單式 …
2. … 過去簡單式 … if / when … 過去簡單式 …

用法:

過去事實條件句係用來談論在過去實際生活中經常發生的情況或常做的事情。不過,習慣已經改變,現今通常不做這些事情了。

例句:

  • If my father went to a friend’s house for dinner, he usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. But he doesn’t do that anymore. (如果我父親去朋友家共進晚餐,他通常會帶一瓶葡萄酒或一些花。但他現在不再這麼做了)
  • When I had a day off from work, I often went swimming. Now, I never get time off. (當我休一天假時,我通常會去游泳。現在我都沒有休假)
  • If the weather was nice, Mary often walked to work. Now, she usually drives. (如果天氣好的話,瑪麗經常走路去上班。現在她通常開車)
  • Harry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn’t do that anymore. (當哈利有時間時,他都會從旁幫助我做家庭作業。但他現在不再這麼做了)
  • A: Where did you stay if you went to Beijing? (如果你去北京,你都住哪裡?)
    B: I usually stayed with my aunt. (我通常住我阿姨家)

Used to

Used to 是指過去習慣性和經常性的動作,但現在已經不做或不再發生,也可指過去存在的狀態或情況,但現在已不存在。這片語經常用於過去事實條件句來強調某事是過去的習慣。下面的例句與上面的例句意思並無不同。

例句:

  • If my father went to a friend’s house for dinner, he used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. But he doesn’t do that anymore.
  • When I had a day off from work, I used to go swimming. Now, I never get time off.
  • If the weather was nice, Mary used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.
  • Harry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn’t do that anymore.
  • A: Where did you stay if you went to Beijing?
    B: I used to stay with my aunt.

If / When

在過去事實條件句中,使用 if 或 when 都可以。若使用 if,則表示某事比較不常發生;若使用 when,則表示某事經常發生。

例句:

  • When I had a day off from work, I usually went swimming.
    - 表示我經常有假。
  • If I had a day off from work, I usually went swimming.
    - 表示我很少有假。

過去非事實條件句 (與過去事實相反的條件句)

句型:

1. If … 過去完成式 …, … would have + 過去分詞 …
2. … would have + 過去分詞 … if … 過去完成式 …

用法:

過去非事實條件句係用來談論過去虛構的情況。

例句:

  • If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn’t own one, so I took the bus. (如果我有車,我會開車上班。但我沒有車,所以我搭公車)
  • Janet would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn’t have much money, so she never traveled. (如果珍妮有更多的錢,她會去環遊世界。但她沒有很多錢,所以她從未去旅行)
  • Cindy would have gotten the job and moved to Paris if she had studied French in school instead of Japanese. (如果辛蒂在校時學的是法文而不是日文,那麼她會獲得那份工作並搬到巴黎)
  • If Tony had worked harder, he would have earned more money. Unfortunately, he was lazy and he didn’t earn much. (如果東尼更努力工作,他會賺更多的錢。遺憾的是,他懶惰,所以沒有賺很多錢)
  • A: What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week? (如果你上週中了樂透,你會做什麼?)
    B: I would have bought a mansion. (我會買一間豪宅)
  • A: What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to China? (如果你已決定搬到中國,你會選擇哪個城市?)
    B: I would have chosen Shanghai. (我會選擇上海)

僅能使用 If

過去非事實條件句只能使用 if,不可用 when,因為它談論的是與過去事實相反的虛構情況。

例句:

  • I would have bought that car if it had been cheaper. (如果那部車便宜一點,我會買下它) (正)
  • I would have bought that car when it had been cheaper. (誤)

在過去非事實條件句中,除了 would 外,還可使用 should, could, might 這三個情態助動詞。

例句:

  • If Robert had invited me, I really should have gone. (如果羅伯特邀請我,我真的應該去)
  • If you had gone to Egypt, you could have learned Arabic. (如果你去埃及,你就能學阿拉伯語)
  • If Cindy had had time, she might have gone to the party. (如果辛蒂有時間,她可能參加派對)
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