現在完成進行式

句型

has/have + been + 現在分詞

例句:

  • They have been waiting here for two hours. (他們已在這裡等了兩小時)
  • Have they been waiting here for two hours? (他們已在這裡等了兩小時嗎?)
  • They have not been waiting here for two hours. (他們沒有在這裡等了兩小時)

用法之一:從過去持續到現在的時間

我們使用現在完成進行式來表示某事發生在過去且一直持續到現在。for ten minutes, for two weeks, since Thursday 等等,都是可與現在完成進行式連用的時間副詞片語。

例句:

  • They have been talking for the last 30 minutes. (他們已交談了三十分鐘)
  • Stella has been working at that company for four years. (史泰拉已在那家公司工作了四年)
  • What have you been doing for the last hour? (過去一小時來你都在做什麼呢?)
  • Howard has been teaching at the university since July. (自七月以來霍華德就在這所大學任教)
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours! (我們已在這裡等了超過兩小時!)
  • Why has Eric not been taking his medicine for the last three days? (過去三天來艾立克為何都沒有服藥呢?)

用法之二:最近性

我們亦可在沒有時間副詞片語的情況下使用現在完成進行式,此時它強調的是「最近性」,所以經常與 recently 或 lately 連用。進一步地說,現在完成進行式可以用來表示最近完成的動作產生現在的結果或對現在造成的影響。

例句:

  • She has been working hard recently. (她最近一直努力地工作)
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired. (最近我一直覺得很累)
  • Hannah has been watching too much television lately. (漢娜近來看了太多的電視)
  • Have you been exercising lately? (你近來有在運動嗎?)
  • Robin has been feeling a little depressed. (羅蘋最近一直覺得有點沮喪)
  • Paul has not been practicing his English. (保羅最近沒有練習英文)
  • What have you been doing? (你最近都在做什麼呢?)
  • I have been working in the garden, and that’s why my hands are so dirty. (我一直在花園工作,那就是我的雙手很髒的原因) - 最近完成的動作產生現在的結果。

重點提示

切記現在完成進行式含有「最近,近來;不久前」(lately, recently) 的意思。如果我們在問句中使用現在完成進行式,如 “Have you been feeling alright?” (你的身體覺得還好吧?),這可能暗示此人現在看起來有病或不健康。所以,類似 “Have you been smoking?” (你不久前有抽菸嗎?) 這樣的問句,可能暗示你在此人身上聞到了菸味。總而言之,在問句中使用這種時態,係表示你可以看到、聞到、聽到或感覺到動作的結果,也就是最近完成的動作產生現在的結果或對現在造成的影響。因此,現在完成進行式若使用不當,可能會侮辱到別人。

切記非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法

我們必須記住非進行式動詞及若干混合動詞的非進行式用法,它們不能用於任何進行式時態。換言之,這些動詞必須使用現在完成式,不可使用現在完成進行式。

例句:

  • Tom has been having his car for two years. (湯姆有車已經兩年了) (誤)
  • Tom has had his car for two years. (湯姆有車已經兩年了) (正)

副詞的位置

always, usually, only, never, ever, still, just 等副詞通常位在助動詞 have/has 的後面,即位在 have/has 和過去分詞之間。

例句:

  • They have only been waiting here for one hour. (他們只在這裡等了一小時)
  • Have they only been waiting here for one hour? (他們只在這裡等了一小時嗎?)

主動態/被動態

例句:

  • Recently, Jack has been doing the work. (最近傑克一直在做這項工作) - 主動態
  • Recently, the work has been being done by Jack. (最近這項工作一直被傑克所做) - 被動態

注意:從上面的例句可知,現在完成進行式的被動態句型顯得十分不自然,因此現在完成進行式鮮少使用被動態。

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