Q:I've been working as a dog. 和 I've been working like a dog. 何者正確呢? 還是都對呢?

A:as 和 like 在此均當介系詞用,其中 as 意為「當作,作為;(職業) 是;像;如同」,而 like 意為「像;如同」。就此用法而言,兩者的主要差異在於 as 有「當作,作為;(職業) 是」的意思,而 like 沒有。

首先來看 as 的例句:

  • His father works as a carpenter. (他父親是個木匠 / 他父親的職業是木工)
  • Before I became a translator I worked as a teacher. (在當翻譯員之前,我是老師)
  • Newspaper may be used as a vehicle for publicity. (報紙可用作宣傳工具)
  • The sea can be used as a source of energy. (大海可用作能量的來源)
  • He’s going to the fancy dress party as Superman. (他將打扮得像超人一樣參加化裝舞會)

由例句可知,I’ve been working as a dog. 的意思是「我 (的職業) 一直是一條狗」。這像話嗎? 它的意思並非「我一直像狗一樣地工作」,所以這句不對。

接著來看 like 的例句:

  • I’ve been working like a dog. (我一直辛勤地工作)
  • She was like a daughter to me. (她就像我的女兒一樣)
  • Wendy looks a bit like her brother. (溫蒂長得有點像她的兄弟)
  • Tony is very like his father. (東尼很像他的父親)

根據上面的例句和說明,問題中的兩個句子只有 I’ve been working like a dog. 才正確。事實上,to work like a dog 是成語,亦可寫成 to work like a horse/slave,意為「做牛做馬般地幹活;拼命工作;辛勤工作」。注意:我們可以使用 just, very, quite, not much, not at all, a bit 等程度副詞來修飾 like。例如:

  • Jesse’s very serious, not at all like his father, perhaps more like his mother at times. (傑西非常嚴肅,一點都不像他父親,有時或許比較像他母親)

最後再舉兩例來比較 as 和 like 用法之間的不同之處:

  • Kate has been playing golf as a professional for three years. (凱特作為一名職業選手已經打了三年的高爾夫球了) - 凱特是職業高球選手。
  • Sophia plays golf like a professional. (蘇菲亞高爾夫球打得像職業選手一樣) - 蘇菲亞不是高球職業選手,但打得跟職業選手一樣好。
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