Each 和 every 你完全分得清楚嗎?

不少人迄今仍無法把 each 和 every 分得一清二楚!Each 可用作代名詞和形容詞 (限定詞),指兩個或兩個以上之中的每一個;著重個別的情況,指若干固定數目中的每一個。Every 僅能用作形容詞,僅可指三個或三個以上之中的每一個,不能指兩個之中的每一個;著重整體的全部情況,指任何一個 (其中沒有一個例外)。例如:

  • Each of you has a job to do. (你們每個人都有工作要做) (正)
  • Every of you has a job to do. (你們每個人都有工作要做) (誤)
  • John had a cut on each hand/each of his hands. (約翰每隻手上都有傷口) (正)
  • John had a cut on every one of his toes. (約翰的每根腳指都有傷口) (正)
  • Taiwan, China, and South Korea every won two gold medals. (台灣、中國和南韓各得兩面金牌) (誤)
  • Each boy gets a prize. (每個男孩都得到一份獎品) (正)
  • Every boy gets a prize. (所有男孩都得到獎品) (正)
  • I have read every book in the school. (我已讀過學校裡的所有書籍) (正)
  • Each dog has a name. (每一隻狗都有牠自己的名字) (正)
  • Every dog has a name. (所有狗都有名字) (正)

值得注意的是,each + 名詞和 every + 名詞都表單數,所以要用單數動詞。但「every + 名詞 and every + 名詞」也表單數,換言之,主詞不管是由幾個「every + 名詞」(中間以 and 連接) 所構成,都看作單數主詞,所以要接單數動詞。同樣地,each and every + 名詞也是單數。此外,each 可放在複數主詞之後或與 other 構成片語 each other (互相),但 every 則不行。然而,every 與 not 連用,即「every…not」或「not…every」是部分否定,表示「並非每一個」的意思,但 each 則無此結構。例如:

  • Every boy and every girl likes to go to party. (每個男孩和每個女孩都喜歡參加聚會)
  • Each and every one of us has the responsibility to protect the environment. (我們每個人都有責任保護環境)
  • Not every student has a new book. (並非每個學生都有新書)
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