Q:一般被動態與 get 被動態有何不同呢?

A:及物動詞與動態動詞才有被動態,不及物動詞與狀態動詞 (如 become、seem 等連綴動詞) 沒有被動態。一般的被動態型態為 be + 過去分詞,而 get 被動態型態為 get + 過去分詞。例如:

  • Three people died and four were seriously/badly/severely injured in the crash. (車禍中有三人死亡四人受重傷) (一般被動態)
  • Three people died and four got seriously/badly/severely injured in the crash. (Get 被動態)

Get 被動態主要用在非正式口說英語中,通常用來談論負面或不想要的事件 (但並非總是如此)。這種被動態通常不帶「by + 動作執行者」,但這也不表示其後不能使用「by + 動作執行者」。例如:

  • Warren has worked for that company for over ten years but he still got sacked. (華倫已在那家公司工作超過十年,但他仍被解雇了)
  • My bicycle got stolen last night. (我的腳踏車昨晚被偷了)
  • John finally got promoted. (約翰終於獲得晉升)
  • Owen got hit by the bus. (歐文被公車撞了)
  • Sam got punched on the nose by his neighbor. (山姆被他的鄰居揮拳重擊在鼻樑上)

Be + 過去分詞和 get + 過去分詞雖然都是被動態,但兩者的用法主要有下列幾個不同:

第一:Be + 過去分詞表狀態;get + 過去分詞強調動作。例如:

  • The window was broken. (窗户破了) (窗戶被打破的狀態)
  • The window got broken. (窗户被打破了) (窗戶被打破的瞬間動作)

第二:Be + 過去分詞中的 be 動詞為助動詞,可直接在其後加上 not 變成否定句或將其挪到句首變成疑問句;get + 過去分詞中的 get 為普通動詞,若要變成否定或疑問句,須藉助於 do/does/did 等助動詞。這裡所述皆僅針對現在和過去簡單式而言,其他時態可能還須藉助於其他助動詞,如完成式須使用助動詞 have/has/had。例如:

  • Those streetlamps were damaged in the typhoon. (那些路燈在颱風中受損)
    Those streetlamps were not damaged in the typhoon. (那些路燈在颱風中沒有受損)
    Were those streetlamps damaged in the typhoon? (那些路燈在颱風中有受損嗎?)
  • Those streetlamps got damaged in the typhoon. (那些路燈在颱風中受損)
    Those streetlamps didn’t get damaged in the typhoon. (那些路燈在颱風中沒有受損)
    Did those streetlamps get damaged in the typhoon? (那些路燈在颱風中有受損嗎?)

第三:現在完成進行式、過去完成進行式、未來完成進行式和未來進行式鮮少使用 be + 過去分詞的一般被動態,但可使用 get + 過去分詞的 get 被動態。例如:

  • Recently, the work has been being done by Jack. (最近這項工作一直被傑克所做) (不佳,應盡量避免)
    Recently, the work has been getting done by Jack.
  • The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Smith for two years before he moved to Milan. (在主廚史密斯搬到米蘭之前,兩年來這家餐廳精美好吃的晚餐都是由他所做) (不佳,應盡量避免)
    The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been getting prepared by Chef Smith for two years before he moved to Milan.
  • The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over one year by the time it is finished. (到了這幅壁畫被完成時,這幅畫將已被這位名畫家畫了超過一年) (不佳,應盡量避免)
    The mural will have been getting painted by the famous artist for over one year by the time it is finished.
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by Jason. (今晚八點碗盤將正在被傑森洗滌) (不佳,應盡量避免)
    At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be getting washed by Jason.

必須注意的是,如上述,及物動詞與動態動詞才有被動態,不及物動詞與狀態動詞沒有被動態。所以,不少 get + 過去分詞及 be + 過去分詞其實並非被動態,反而是主動態,因為這些過去分詞乃是不及物動詞或狀態動詞的過去分詞,它們是用作形容詞 (亦即過去分詞形容詞),當主詞補語。例如:

  • Spring is come.
    = Spring has come. (春天來了)
  • We got married in Taipei last year. (我們去年在台北結婚)
  • Things tend to get lost when you move. (搬家時東西常常會不知去向)
  • After they got divorced, he never remarried. (他們離婚後,他就一直沒有再婚)
  • Robert got engaged to Helen when travelling last summer. (去年夏天在旅行時,羅伯特跟海倫訂了婚)
  • Cindy got dressed quickly. (辛蒂很快就穿好衣服了)
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