Below 還是 under 呢?

在「Below, beneath, under, underneath (preps.)」一文中,筆者已就這幾個介系詞在指位置時它們意思的細微差異,做了詳細的解說。本文將就 below 和 under 與測量單位和數字連用來表示「低於;少於;小於」(less than) 的意思時常見的錯誤,做一說明。

年齡

在指年齡時要用 under,不用 below。然而,有些字典亦使用 below,讓人感到困惑,殊不知「未成年」的英文是 underage 而不是 belowage (沒這個字)。例如:

  • We have three children under the age of six. (我們有三個不到六歲的孩子) (正)
  • The nursery is open for children under 4. (這家托兒所收 4歲以下的兒童) (正)

測量單位

在指時間和重量時要用 under,不用 below。例如:

  • The sports car can get from standstill up to 100 kilometers per hour in under five seconds. (這部跑車從靜止加速到時速 100 公里還不到五秒) (正)
    The sports car can get from standstill up to 100 kilometers per hour in below six seconds. (誤)
  • A visa is not required for a stay of under six months. (停留六個月以內不需要簽證) (正)
    A visa is not required for a stay of below six months. (誤)
  • This type of schoolbag was just under two kilos, so they could not hinder development in schoolchildren. (這款書包重量不到兩公斤,所以它們不會妨礙學童的發育) (正)
    This type of schoolbag was just below two kilos, so they could not hinder development in schoolchildren. (誤)
  • The newborn baby weighed under three kilos. (這個新生兒重量不到三公斤) (正)
    The newborn baby weighed below three kilos. (誤)

閱讀全文

Tall 還是 high 呢?

Tall 和 high 這兩個形容詞都意為「高的」,但 tall 是用來指人、建築物以及會長高的東西,而 high 則用來指高山以及離地面有一段頗長距離的東西。例如:

  • James is thin and tall. (詹姆斯又瘦又高) (正)
    James is thin and high. (誤)
  • It’s the world’s tallest tower. (那是世界最高的大樓)
  • It’s the highest mountain in the world. (那是世界最高的山)
  • The plants were two meters tall. (這些植物有 2 公尺高)
  • There are many tall trees in our school. (我們學校有許多高樹)
  • The light switch is too high for a child to use. (電燈開關對小孩來說太高了,碰觸不到)
  • There is a high ceiling in my office. (我辦公室的天花板很高)
  • John built a 3-meter-high wall around his house. (約翰在他房子的四周築起了 3 公尺高的圍牆)
  • How tall are they? (他們身高有多高?)
  • How high are they? (他們距地面有多高?)

No doubt 還是 without doubt 呢?

當我們認為我們所說的事情是真的或可能發生時,可以用 no doubt 來表示。儘管字典給 no doubt 下的定義幾乎都是「毫無疑問,毋庸置疑,肯定」,但其實它的意思類似於 “I imagine” 或 “I suppose” (我想,我認為)。例如:

  • No doubt Amy was the most beautiful girl in her class. (我認為艾美是她班上最漂亮的女生 / 艾美很可能是她班上最漂亮的女生)
  • Tom will no doubt visit us if he comes to Taipei. (如果湯姆來台北,他很可能會來我們家作客)

當我們非常肯定我們的看法時,可以用 there is no doubt that … (毫無疑問,毋庸置疑,肯定) 來表示,但不可用 no doubt。There is no doubt that … 係用於正式場合。例如:
閱讀全文

Fall 還是 fall down 呢?

Fall 可當名詞和動詞用,意思少說也有一、二十個之多,但本文僅就其「落下,倒下,摔倒,跌倒;下降」的意思來討論相關的用法錯誤。Fall 是個不規則動詞,時態變化為 fall, fell, fallen。它僅當不及物動詞用,所以不需要受詞。例如:

  • Robert had a bad fall yesterday. (羅伯特昨天重重地摔了一跤) (fall 當名詞用)
  • Many trees fell in the storm. (許多樹在暴風雨中被吹倒了) (fall 當動詞用)
  • House prices have fallen recently. (房價最近下跌) (fall 當動詞用)

由於 fall 僅當不及物動詞用,再加上其「向下」的含意,許多人乃把 fall 和 fall down 當作同義詞,用錯而不自知。Fall 指的是從較高的位置掉落到地面,或從較高的水平或價位降下來,而 fall down 這個片語動詞則是指人或物從其正常的位置掉落到地面。因此,當你認為既然「摔倒;跌倒」的名詞是 fall,那麼動詞當然也是用 fall 時,錯誤於焉發生。例如:
閱讀全文

Far 還是 a long way 呢?

Far 和 a long way 都可用來表示距離遠的。例如:

  • A lot of people can’t see very far without their glasses on. (許多人沒戴眼鏡就不能看得很遠)
  • Taiwan is a long way from Canada. (台灣與加拿大距離遙遠)

Far 大多用在否定句和疑問句。例如:

  • There’s a Korean restaurant not far from here. (離這裡不遠處有一家韓式餐廳)
  • How far is her house from the airport? (她家離機場多遠?)

A long way 大多用在肯定句,但亦可用在否定句和疑問句。例如:
閱讀全文

使用 largely 時常見的錯誤

Largely 是個副詞,意為「主要地;大多;大部分地」。例如:

  • Mr. Chen runs a largely female company. (陳先生經營一家員工大多為女性的公司)
  • The company’s success is largely due to our efforts. (這家公司能成功主要是靠我們的努力)

Largely 並無 enormously、greatly 或 significantly 等字「極其,非常,大大地,巨大地」的意思。例如:

  • The noise was greatly reduced. (噪音大大地降低了) (正)
    The noise was largely reduced. (誤)
  • Mary admired her professor enormously. (瑪麗對她的教授極為欽佩) (正)
    Mary admired her professor largely. (誤)

閱讀全文

使用 abroad 時常見的錯誤

Abroad 與 go, live, study 等動詞連用時一定用作副詞,此時它意為「在國外;到國外」。例如:

  • We intend to go abroad at least once a year from now on. (我們打算從現在起一年至少出國一次) (正)
    We intend to go to abroad at least once a year from now on. (誤)
  • My brother is still living abroad. (我哥哥仍住在國外) (正)
    My brother is still living in abroad. (誤)
  • Blanche would like to study abroad. (布蘭琪想要出國留學) (正)
    Blanche would like to study in abroad. (誤)
  • We’re planning our first trip abroad/overseas. (我們正在規劃我們的首次出國旅遊) (正)
    We’re planning our first trip to abroad/overseas. (誤)

閱讀全文

Wait 還是 wait for 呢?

Wait 意為「等,等候」,可當及物和不及物動詞用,若受詞為時間,其後可接或不接介系詞 for。例如:

  • They waited hours to get the tickets for the exhibition. (他們等了好幾個小時才買到展覽會入場券) (正)
    They waited for hours to get the tickets for the exhibition. (正)
  • I waited 30 minutes for the bus. (我等了三十分鐘公車) (正)
    I waited for 30 minutes for the bus. (正)

然而,當受詞為人事物時,wait 的後面須有 for。例如:
閱讀全文

使用 without 時常見的錯誤

Without 為介系詞,意為「無,沒有,不」。例如:

  • Money in not everything but nothing can be done without money. (錢不是萬能,但沒有錢卻萬萬不能)
  • I like to drink coffee without sugar. (我喜歡喝不加糖的咖啡)

在上面的例句中,without 後面都是接不可數名詞。若 without 後接單數可數名詞,則該名詞前面一定要有不定冠詞 a/an。例如:

  • Henry left us without a word. (亨利一句話也沒說就離開我們了) (正)
    Henry left us without word. (誤)
  • He can do mathematics without a calculator. (他不用計算機就能做數學計算) (正)
    He can do mathematics without calculator. (誤)
  • Don’t go out without an umbrella. It’s raining cats and dogs. (沒帶傘不要外出。外面正下著傾盆大雨) (正)
    Don’t go out without umbrella. It’s raining cats and dogs. (誤)

閱讀全文

Get 還是 go 呢?

在表示「移動,行進」的意思時,get 和 go 是近義詞,但 get 著重於到達。例如:

  • I’ll call you as soon as I get to Seoul. (我一到首爾就會打電話給你) (正)
    I’ll call you as soon as I go to Seoul. (誤)
  • The thing is, he got to work late and missed part of the on-the-job training. (問題是,他上班遲到而且錯過了部分在職訓練) (正)
    The thing is, he went to work late and missed part of the on-the-job training. (誤)

上下公車、巴士、火車和飛機要用 get on 和 get off,不能用 go on 和 go off。例如:

  • When Jack got on the plane, there was someone sitting in his seat. (傑克登上飛機時,有人坐在他的座位上) (正)
    When Jack went on the plane, there was someone sitting in his seat. (誤)
  • I will be waiting for you when you get off the train. (你下火車時,我會在那裡等你) (正)
    I will be waiting for you when you go off the train. (誤)

閱讀全文