At、on 和 in 後接時間的用法

幾點鐘 (或幾時幾分幾秒)、一天當中的某個時間點、一週當中的某個時間點、特別的節日等時間詞的前面須使用 at。例如:

  • I’ll pick you up at the airport at six o’clock. (我六點鐘會到機場接你)
  • I woke up from a dream at 4:30 a.m. (我凌晨四點半從夢中醒過來)
  • He was released/discharged from (the) hospital at midday. (他中午出院)
  • What are you doing at the weekend? (你週末要幹什麼?) - 美式英語通常使用 on the weekend。
  • John works at (the) weekends. (約翰每個週末都工作) -美式英語通常使用 on (the) weekends。
  • Mary will meet her pen pal at Christmas. (瑪麗將在聖誕節和她的筆友見面)
  • At the Lunar New Year, the Lion Dance is one of the most popular traditional performances. (在農曆新年,舞獅是最受歡迎的傳統表演之一)

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用過去式指現在的時間

在英文中,為了表示禮貌或使語氣比較沒有那麼直接,有時會使用過去式來指現在的時間。我們通常使用 hope、think、want 和 wonder 等動詞來達成這項目的。在這種句子中,動詞可能是過去簡單式或是過去進行式,後者更有禮貌。例如:

  • I was hoping you had a job. (我希望你有工作) - 沒有 I hope you have a job. 那麼直接。
  • I was having problems with my computer and I was just wondering if you could fix them for me. (我的電腦出了問題,我只是想知道你是否能幫我修復) - 沒有 I have a problem with my computer and I wonder if you could fix it for me. 那麼直接。I was just wondering if …這個句型經常可見,宜牢記。
  • Would you give this book to Simon, please? (請你把這本書拿給賽蒙,好嗎?) - 沒有 Will you give this book to Simon, please? 那麼直接,而且比較有禮貌。
  • I wanted to ask you a question. (我想問你一個問題)

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At、on 和 in 後接地點的用法 (下)

On 可用來指任何表面上的位置,意為「在…上面;到…上面」。例如:

  • All my books are on the desk. (我所有的書都放在書桌上)
  • She’s lying on the floor. (她躺在地板上)
  • There were several attractive posters on the wall. (牆上有幾張引人注目的海報)
    但 There’s a crack in the wall. (牆上有條裂縫)
  • I could hear the rain falling on the roof. (我聽得到雨滴落在屋頂上的聲音)

On 可用來指建築物的樓層。例如:

  • They live on the 39th floor. (他們住在 40 樓 (英) / 他們住在 39 樓 (美))
  • She works on the 51st floor. (她在 52 樓工作 (英) /她在 51 樓工作 (美))
    - 英國的一樓是 the ground floor,二樓是 the first floor;美國的一樓是 the first floor,二樓是 the second floor。

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At、on 和 in 後接地點的用法 (上)

At 可用來指位置或地點,意為「在…;在…裡;在…旁」。例如:

  • My girlfriend was already waiting at the gate when I got there. (當我到達那裡時,我女朋友已在大門口等候了)
  • Mary was sitting at her desk. (瑪麗坐在她的書桌前)
  • Gary’s sitting at the table in the corner. (蓋瑞坐在角落的一張桌子旁)
  • There’s a telephone booth/box at the crossroads. (十字路口有個電話亭) - 注意:crossroads 雖是複數型,但卻是個單數可數名詞。

At 可用來指在某家公司上班或在某個工作場所工作,但在某部門工作 (任職於某部門) 或在辦公室、辦事處、事務所等建築物工作,要用 in。某家公司的承包商或顧問,由於不是員工,一般都用 with。例如:

  • She works at Google. (她在谷歌上班)
    = She works for Google.
  • She works in the accounting department at Google. (她任職於谷歌的會計部門)
  • She works with Google as a consultant. (她擔任谷歌的顧問)
  • She should be at work by now. (她現在應該在上班) - at work (在上班)、go to work (去上班) 或 off work (沒上班) 中的 work 都意為「工作場所;上班的地方」。

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Hear that, see that

Hear that 和 see that 經常被用來引導新的訊息或資訊,此時 hear 意為「聽說,得知」,而 see 意為「知道;明白;瞭解」。在這項用法中,hear 和 see 通常使用現在簡單式,而 that 有時會省略。例如:

  • I hear (that) Teresa has a thing for Benjamin. (我聽說泰瑞莎喜歡班傑明)
  • I hear Mary’s getting married in August. (我聽說瑪麗八月要結婚)
  • I see (that) John is going to move to Taipei next month. (我知道約翰下個月將搬到台北)
  • I see Professor Chen remarried. (我知道陳教授再婚了)

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So that 和 in order that 的用法

So that 和 in order that 都是用來表示目的,意為「為了;以便;目的在於」,當連接詞用,通常與語氣助動詞 (can、will、could、would 等) 連用。So that 比 in order that 來得常用許多,在非正式情況中,so that 中的 that 往往省略。In order that 是個正式用語,通常用於正式場合。例如:

  • John lowered his voice to tell me the secret so that no one would hear. (約翰壓低嗓音告訴我這個秘密,這樣就沒有人能聽到)
  • Mary got up early in order that she should/would/might be on time for school. (瑪麗一早就起床以便準時上學)
  • I’ll go there so that I can talk to the president. (我要去那裡,這樣我才能跟總統談話)
  • In order that you can sign the contract, please give me your address and I will mail it to you. (為了讓你能夠簽約,請給我你的地址,我會把合約寄給你)
  • Thomas worked hard so (that) he would earn one million dollars before the age of 25. (湯瑪斯努力工作俾在 25 歲之前能賺到 100 萬)
  • I’ve made some sushi so (that) you can have a snack with your girlfriend. (我做了一些壽司,這樣你就能跟你女朋友一起吃點心)

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Need 的用法

Need 可當「半語氣助動詞」(marginal modal or semi-modal - dare、ought to 和 used to 也是屬於這類助動詞) 和普通動詞用,前者與其他語氣助動詞一樣,後接原形動詞,但它幾乎都是用在否定句和 (少部分用在) 問句中。例如:

  • He needn’t earn overtime. (他不必賺加班費)
  • You needn’t take off your shoes. (你不必脫鞋)
  • Need I reply? (我必須回覆嗎?)

當語氣助動詞用的 need 鮮少用於肯定句,除非是在正式的上下文中。但即使 need 後面未接 not,句子中也幾乎都會使用 no one、nobody、nothing 等否定詞,使得句子仍屬否定句。例如:
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Ever 的用法 (二)

條件句

Ever 用在 if 所引導的條件句時,ever 可緊接在 if 之後或位在句子的中間位置,亦即位在主詞和主動詞之間 (即普通動詞之前)、語氣助動詞或第一個助動詞之後,或當主動詞用的 BE 動詞之後。例如:

  • If ever you’re in Taipei, do give me a call. (如果你有到台北,一定要打個電話給我)
    = If you’re ever in Taipei, do give me a call.
  • If you ever see Robert, give him my kind regards. (如果你見到羅伯特,請代我向他致以問候之意)
  • If Tony had ever worked harder, he would have earned more money. (如果東尼以前更努力工作的話,他會賺更多的錢)
  • I seldom/rarely, if ever, watch television. (我難得看電視)
  • His wife seldom/rarely, if ever, does any cleaning. (他太太難得打掃一次)
    - seldom, if ever 或 rarely, if ever = probably never (難得;可能從不)。
  • Now there’s a great challenge, if ever there was one. (現在確實有一項重大的挑戰)
  • That was a fine dinner if ever there was one! (那確實是一頓豐盛的晚餐!)
  • It was a difficult job if ever there was one. (毋庸置疑地,那是一項艱難的工作)
  • If ever there was an opportunity for you to see the president, this was it. (如果說有一個可以讓你見到總統的機會,那就是這個機會了)
    - if ever there was one/something 意為「(用來強調所說情況的真實性) 不容置疑,確實」。不管主句的時態為何,if ever there was one/something 中的 there was 為固定用語。

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Ever 的用法 (一)

Ever 是個副詞,主要意為「在 (過去、現在或未來) 任何時候;從來」,通常用於疑問句,否定句以及表示比較和條件的附屬子句。

疑問句

  • Have you ever been to New York? (你去過紐約嗎?)
  • Have you ever heard of the word “dotard”? (你聽過「老番癲」這個字嗎?)
  • Do you ever dream about winning the lottery? (你夢想過中樂透嗎?)

否定句

Ever 用於否定句時通常與 not、no、none、no one、nobody、nothing 和 hardly 等否定詞連用。例如:

  • No such animal ever existed. (這樣的動物從來就沒有存在過)
  • None of my friends have ever heard of that guy. (我的朋友當中從來就沒有人聽說過那個傢伙)
  • No one ever told me John had moved to Taipei. (從來就沒有人告訴我約翰已搬到台北)
  • It hardly ever rains here in the summer. (這裡夏天幾乎從不下雨) - hardly ever = almost never (幾乎從不)。

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