So that 和 in order that 的用法

So that 和 in order that 都是用來表示目的,意為「為了;以便;目的在於」,當連接詞用,通常與語氣助動詞 (can、will、could、would 等) 連用。So that 比 in order that 來得常用許多,在非正式情況中,so that 中的 that 往往省略。In order that 是個正式用語,通常用於正式場合。例如:

  • John lowered his voice to tell me the secret so that no one would hear. (約翰壓低嗓音告訴我這個秘密,這樣就沒有人能聽到)
  • Mary got up early in order that she should/would/might be on time for school. (瑪麗一早就起床以便準時上學)
  • I’ll go there so that I can talk to the president. (我要去那裡,這樣我才能跟總統談話)
  • In order that you can sign the contract, please give me your address and I will mail it to you. (為了讓你能夠簽約,請給我你的地址,我會把合約寄給你)
  • Thomas worked hard so (that) he would earn one million dollars before the age of 25. (湯瑪斯努力工作俾在 25 歲之前能賺到 100 萬)
  • I’ve made some sushi so (that) you can have a snack with your girlfriend. (我做了一些壽司,這樣你就能跟你女朋友一起吃點心)

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After 和 behind 的用法差異

After 主要當介系詞、副詞和連接詞用,而 behind 則主要當介系詞和副詞用。這兩個字的用法可謂「小同大異」,除了有個地方可以互換之外,其他用法皆大異其趣、截然不同。

After 用作介系詞時意為「在 … 之後,在 … 以後;在 … 後面;隨 … 之後」,是指時間的先後順序。例如:

  • After graduation Allen is going to study abroad. (艾倫畢業後要出國留學)
  • We’re planning to meet at half after ten. (我們打算十點半見面)
  • After you, please. (您先請)
  • After you with the computer, please. (請您用完電腦後給我用)
  • Mary came in after John. (瑪麗在約翰之後進來)
  • Paul slammed the door after him. (保羅砰的一聲隨手關上了門)

After 用作副詞時意為「之後,以後」,也是指時間的先後順序。在此用法中,after 通常與其他字構成副詞片語。例如:

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Once 的用法

Once 可當副詞、連接詞和名詞用。

Once 當副詞時意為「一次,一回」,如 We’ve met only once. (我們只見過一次面)。在這項用法中,我們經常使用 once a + 單數時間詞 (once a week/month/year etc. - 一星期/一個月/一年等一次) 及 once every + 複數時間詞 (once every two days/three years etc. - 每兩天/三年等一次) 來表示事情發生的頻率。例如:

  • We go for dinner together once a week. (我們一個禮拜會共進晚餐一次) (正)
  • We go for dinner together once the week. (誤)
  • Tom visits his parents only once every two or three months. (湯姆每兩三個月才探望他父母親一次)

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連接詞前面使用逗點的時機

And, or 或 but 等連接詞 (conjunctions) 的前面何時使用逗點 (或逗號),並無一定的規則可資遵循。

使用逗點來結合兩個獨立子句 (independent clauses)

當兩個獨立子句使用 and, or 或 but 等連接詞來結合時,該連接詞的前面應使用逗點。例如:

  • Sophia loves music, but Mary loves dance. (蘇菲雅愛好音樂,但瑪麗喜愛舞蹈) (正) - Sophia loves music. 和 Mary loves dance. 這兩句使用連接詞 but 來結合成一句,but 前面應有逗點。
  • I have called Cindy, and she has confirmed the date of the meeting. (我已打電話給辛蒂,而她已確認會議的日期) (正) - 連接詞 and 前面有逗點是正確的。
  • I have called Cindy, and confirmed the date of the meeting. (我已打電話給辛蒂並確認了會議的日期) (誤) - 連接詞 and 前面不應有逗點,因為 “confirmed the date of the meeting” 不是句子。這只是將 “called Cindy” 和 “confirmed the date of the meeting” 這兩個項目列在一起。
  • His sister’s had an accident at work, and she’s had to go to hospital. (他妹妹在工作時發生事故,必須去醫院治療) (正)
  • We had dinner and then went to the movies. (我們吃了晚餐後就去看電影) (正) - 沒有逗點是正確的。

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一個句子使用了 11 個 that,其中 7 個還連在一起,但它仍有意義且語法正確

下句總共使用了 11 個 that,其中 7 個還連在一起,但它仍是個有意義且語法正確的句子 (以下稱為「本句」)。本句不僅以實例來呈現 that 的不同用法,而且使用 “it’s true (that)” 句型來說明,儘管都是 that,但吾人不能一體適用地看待所有 that 或任何 that,因為此 that 往往非彼 that。

It is true for all that that that that that that that refers to is not the same that that that that refers to.

現在就來說明這 11 個 that 在句中的詞類和用法。為了避免混淆,筆者依序在它們的後面加上阿拉伯數字。

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Q:在 I’ll face the fact that my girlfriend will move to Taipei tomorrow. 中,the fact that 的語法功能為何呢?

A:這句的意思為「我將要面對我女友明天搬到台北的事實」。儘管中文翻譯有「事實」二字,但它並非 “the fact” 的翻譯,而是筆者為了讓中文翻譯變得通順而加入的,因為 the fact that 中的 the fact 雖具有舉足輕重的語法功能,但本身並無意義。

The fact that 的語法功能有下列三項,其對英文寫作的幫助尤其宏大:

一、用來引導名詞子句

在許多情況中,當 that 所引導的名詞子句比較複雜時,若直接將其置於句首當主詞,可能會顯得「頭重腳輕」。這時我們通常使用形式主詞或虛主詞 it 來代替 that 子句,而將 that 子句置於句末。注意:that 子句當主詞時,動詞須用單數。例如:

  • That my son has passed all the exams makes me feel very happy.
    = It makes me feel very happy that my son has passed all the exams. (我兒子已通過所有考試,令我很高興)
  • That he lost his job suddenly worried his parents very much.
    = It worried his parents very much that he lost his job suddenly. (他突然失業,使他的父母非常憂慮)
  • That she did not go to Cindy’s birthday party surprised everybody.
    =It surprised everybody that she did not go to Cindy’s birthday party. (她未參加辛蒂的生日派對,讓大家很驚訝)

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Fact, truth (nn.)

這兩個名詞都意為「事實;真相」,但含意和用法不盡相同,如在 Neither witness told the truth. (兩名目擊者都沒有說實話) 這句中,truth 不可用 fact 來代替,因為 tell the truth (說實話) 為慣用語。

Fact 意為「事實;真相」,係表示客觀的、可以證明的事實,對所有人來說都是一樣的,因為事情已經發生或存在,如 Facts speak louder than words. (事實勝於雄辯);The soap opera is based on historical fact. (這齣連續劇是以史實 [歷史事實] 為依據);The teacher told us a lot of interesting facts about baseball. (老師告訴我們許多有關棒球的有趣事實);Let’s just stick to the facts and not jump to any conclusions. (我們還是實事求是吧,不要貿然下結論)。

Truth 意為「真相;真理;實話;真實性」,係表示主觀的真相或真理,它們可能因人而異,如 It is universal truth that holds true for the whole world. (這是一項放諸四海皆準的普遍真理;Truth lies at the bottom of a well. (真理不易被發現);There’s not any truth in these rumors. (這些謠傳沒有任何真實性);Only after several months of investigating did the police finally get to the truth. (經過好幾個月的調查後,警方才終於查明了真相)。

值得一提的是,fact 在英文中還扮演一個很重要的語法角色:由於連接詞 that 所引導的名詞子句不能直接當介系詞的受詞,因此為了讓 that 子句與 due to、in view of 等片語連用,可在 that 前面加上 the fact 來使 that 子句作其同位語,形成 the fact that 結構。在此結構中,the fact 並無意義,但卻解決了諸多寫作不順暢或語法錯誤的問題,如 I didn’t go out because of the fact that it was raining. (因為下雨,我沒有外出)。

Q: 國內不少人使用的 Yxxxx!字典有 “The dollar has gone down against the yen, therefore Japanese goods are more expensive for Americans.” 這樣一個例句。但這句對嗎?

A:這句犯了一個相當常見且非常嚴重的錯誤,也就是英文所謂的「逗點謬誤」 (comma fault or run-on error),即兩個句子之間沒有連接詞而是用逗點來當連接詞。這種句子被稱為 run-on sentences。問題的癥結在於 therefore 是個副詞,卻被當作連接詞。所以問題中的句子應改為

  • The dollar has gone down against the yen, and therefore Japanese goods are more expensive for Americans. (美元兌日元的匯率下跌了,因此日本商品對美國人來說比較貴了) - 這句沒有下句好。

  • The dollar has gone down against the yen; therefore, Japanese goods are more expensive for Americans.

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Taller than I 還是 Taller than me 呢?

這兩者都對,但不是每個人都同意這兩者都對,這就是問題所在。儘管 Tom is taller than me 這樣的說法比較自然,但許多人認為這是錯的;相對地,有些人則認為 Tom is taller than I 的說法顯得做作。所以,最安全的作法就是將句子展開為 Tom is taller than I am.。這樣的結構殆無疑義,不會引起任何爭議。

爭議的根源在於 than 這個字既可當連接詞、亦可當介系詞用。當 than 用作連接詞時,句子寫成:

  • Tom is taller than I am. (湯姆比我高) (正)
  • Tom is taller than I. (正) - 只是比較簡潔。

當 than 用作介系詞時,句子寫成:

  • Tom is taller than me. (正)

文法學者已為 than 到底是連接詞還是介系詞爭論了好幾百年。對大多數來說,”than me” 的說法比較自然,但這種說法被認為錯誤的機率也是最高的。這是因為 “than I” 的說法比較早出現,而且在文法上似乎也比較正確。然而,”than I” 的說法聽起來顯得做作,所以公說公有理,婆說婆有理。

此外,還有另一個問題要考慮:”than me” 有時會引發歧義。請看下面的例句:

  • Tom likes John more than me.

這一句可能意為

  • Tom prefers John to me. (湯姆喜歡約翰更甚於我。換言之,在約翰和我之中,湯姆比較喜歡約翰)

也可能意為

  • Tom likes John more than I like John. (湯姆比我更喜歡約翰。換言之,湯姆喜歡約翰,我也喜歡約翰,但湯姆喜歡約翰的程度大於我)

避免引發這種模稜兩可情況的最佳方法,就是把 than 當作連接詞並將句子完整地寫出。例如:

  • Tom likes John more than he likes me. (湯姆喜歡約翰更甚於我)
  • Tom likes John more than I do. 或
  • Tom likes John more than I like John. (湯姆比我更喜歡約翰)

然而,當 than 後面接代名詞 who 時,than 必須用作介系詞,所以 who 要變成 whom;簡言之,”than whom” 是唯一正確的版本。例如:

  • Blanche likes you more than who? (誤)
  • Blanche likes you more than whom? (布蘭奇喜歡你更甚於誰?) (正)

Q:still 和 yet 用作副詞表示「還」之意時,兩者有何不同呢?

A:Still 和 yet 用作副詞時都有「還」的意思,但兩者的用法卻有很大的不同。Still 意為「還,仍然」,係表示某行為、條件或狀態繼續發生或存在且沒有變化,用於肯定句或疑問句,通常位在句中的位置。例如:

  • Are you still working for the same company? (你還在同一公司上班嗎?)
  • Do you still play online games? (你還玩線上遊戲嗎?)
  • They were still having dinner when I arrived. (我到的時候,他們還在用餐)
  • When I came home at midnight, she was still doing her homework. (我午夜回家時,她還在做功課)

Yet 當副詞用時意為「還 (沒)、尚 (未);直到此時」,係表示某行為、條件或狀態應該馬上出現或發生,但卻沒有出現或發生,用於現在式或現在完成式的否定句或疑問句,通常置於句末;但在 “have yet to do sth.” (尚未…;還沒…) 這一固定用語中,yet 則置於句中。例如:

  • Has Peter applied for a visa yet? (彼得申請簽證了嗎?)
  • All of us haven’t had lunch yet. (我們所有人都尚未吃午餐)
  • The sun has not risen yet. (太陽還沒有升起)
  • I’m shocked that you haven’t told your wife anything yet. (我很震驚你什麼都還沒跟你太太說)
  • Robert has yet to go on a business trip to China. (羅伯特尚未去中國大陸出差)

值得一提的是,yet 還可當連接詞用,連接兩個單字、片語或子句,意為「然而,卻;可是,但是」。例如:

  • Tony studied hard, yet he failed in the exam. (東尼很用功,但考試仍不及格)