As well as

As well as 可當附屬連接詞和介系詞用,當連接詞時,它是標準英語,意為「和…一樣」:You know as well as I that he’s a fool. (你和我一樣都知道他是個笨蛋);Do your homework as well as you can. (盡你所能把家庭作業做好)。當介系詞用時,意為「除…之外;而且,也,和」(in addition to):He received a new car, as well as several smaller gifts. (他收到一部新車和數個較小的禮物 / 除了數個較小的禮物,他還收到一部新車)。然而,許多起初看似介系詞的用法其實是標準的附屬連接詞 (下句 as well as 後面沒有受詞):Visitors came from Canada and the United States, as well as from Europe and the Near East. (遊客來自加拿大和美國,而且也來自近東) – 近東通常指地中海東部沿岸地區,包括非洲東北部和亞洲西南部,有時還包括巴爾幹半島 (資料來源:大英百科)。

當 as well as 使句子的主詞變成複合主詞 – 所以要使用複數動詞 – 時,或者當 as well as 及其受詞被語調或逗點隔開,因此使第二部分成為不影響主動詞一致的插入語句時,這片語就會發生用法上的問題:Their seven-foot center as well as their huge forwards were simply too tall for our average-sized players. (他們七呎高的中鋒以及人高馬大的前鋒對我們一般身材的球員來說簡直太高了);Their seven-foot center, as well as their huge forwards, was simply too tall for our average-sized players. (除了人高馬大的前鋒外,他們七呎高的中鋒對我們一般身材的球員來說簡直太高了)。這兩種主動詞一致都是合乎語法的正規英語,但第二個例句顯然不得體 – 英文中,與 as well as 插入語句用法和意思相似的字詞還有 along with, together with 和 plus 等。

或許比上面任何一個例句都要來得好的句子就是捨棄 as well as 而改採不同的寫法:Their center was too tall, and so were [as were] their forwards. (他們的中鋒太高,而他們的前鋒也是)。請務必確定語調或標點符號能反映你所要表達的方式並據此確定主詞是單數還是複數。此外,當字面上的意思可能出現模稜兩可的情況時,as well as 也最好不用,如 Mark plays bowling as well as Peter. 這句可能意為「馬克和彼得都打保齡球」,但也可能意為「馬克和彼得的保齡球打得一樣好」。

Doubt 的用法

Doubt 可當名詞和動詞用,當名詞時意為「疑惑;懷疑」,當動詞時意為「懷疑;不大相信,認為…未必可能」。

Doubt 用法的主要問題在於其後該用那個介系詞或連接詞。doubt 當名詞用時,它絕大部分都是接 about,如 I have my doubts about his plan. (我對他的計畫存有疑慮)。在否定結構中,doubt 無論當名詞或動詞用,其後若接子句,只能接由連接詞 “that” 所引導的名詞子句,如 There is no doubt in my mind that he is telling the truth. 或 I don’t doubt (= I am certain) that he is telling the truth. (我毫不懷疑他在講真話)。而在其他大多數結構中,其後通常接由連接詞 “whether/if” (有些人也使用 that) 所引導的名詞子句,如 I doubt whether/if he is telling the truth. (我不相信他在講真話) — 在口語中,if 比 whether 用得多。

最後要提的是 doubt 在一句大家耳熟能詳的法律用語中的應用:

To give somebody the benefit of the doubt:在沒有證據證明某人有罪之前,應假定他是無罪的。
To give something the benefit of the doubt:在沒有證據證明某事不當之前,應假設它是可行的。