如何強調句中的元素(二)

The thing, the one/only/first thing, something

The thing

我們可以用 the thing (+ 形容詞子句) 當主詞,後接 BE 動詞 (is 或 was) 來強調 BE 動詞後面的元素 (即主詞補語)。這與 Wh-分裂句的作用一樣,但比較不是那麼正式。例如:

  • The thing I love about John is his loyalty to his wife. (我喜歡約翰的一點是,他對他太太的忠誠)
    = What I love about John is his loyalty to his wife.

即使被強調的元素為複數,BE 動詞亦用單數,因為 the thing 是單數名詞。例如:

  • The thing I like most about Penghu is the historic sites. (我最喜歡澎湖的地方是歷史古蹟)
    = What I like most about Penghu is the historic sites.

BE 動詞後面要強調的元素也可以是連接詞 that 所引導的名詞子句。在非正式情況中,有人會將 that 省略,但筆者期期以為不可,因為這是錯誤的文法。例如:

  • The thing you need to remember is that you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (你必須記住的是,你已借給詹姆斯五萬元) (正)
    = What you need to remember is that you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (正)
  • The thing you need to remember is you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (誤)

閱讀全文

Prefer 的用法

Prefer 是個及物動詞,意為「更喜歡,較喜歡;寧願,寧可,更願意,更希望」。由於是狀態動詞,prefer 本身不用進行式,其後可接名詞 (片語)、不定詞或動名詞當受詞。Prefer 經常與介系詞 to 所引導的介系詞片語連用來比較兩個事物或兩個動作。例如:

  • Do you prefer summer or winter? (你比較喜歡夏天還是冬天?)
  • He prefers his daughter to live near him. (他更希望他女兒住在他附近)
  • Do you prefer to exercise indoors or outdoors? (你比較喜歡在室內還是戶外運動?)
  • She prefers living in Kaohsiung. (她比較喜歡住高雄)
  • I prefer white wine to red. (比起紅葡萄酒,我更喜歡白葡萄酒)
  • A lot of people prefer the quiet countryside to the noisy cities. (許多人喜歡寧靜的鄉村更勝於喧囂的城市)
  • Most people prefer watching television to reading books. (比起看書,大多數人更喜歡看電視)

必須注意的是,prefer… to… 是固定搭配,不可使用 than 來替代介系詞 to。例如:

閱讀全文

Miss 後接動名詞

  • I miss living in the country. (我懷念鄉村生活) (正)
  • I miss to live in the country. (誤)

解說:Miss 可當動詞和名詞用,當動詞時有「未擊中;未達到;未出現;未出席;未趕上;未聽見;未領會;錯過;避開;想念;懷念」等常用的意思,但不管是那個意思,其後須接名詞或動名詞,不可接不定詞。再舉數例供大家參考:

  • John doesn’t want to miss seeing that movie on TV tonight. (約翰不想錯過今晚電視播放的那部電影) (正)
    John doesn’t want to miss to see that movie on TV tonight. (誤)
  • They narrowly missed being killed in the terror attack. (他們差一點在恐怖攻擊中喪命) (正)
    They narrowly missed to be killed in the terror attack. (誤)
  • Guy missed coming to my birthday party on Sunday. (星期天蓋伊沒來參加我的生日派對) (正)
    Guy missed to come to my birthday party on Sunday. (誤)

Cos, cos of

Cos 是 because 的簡寫,發 /kəz/ 或 /kɒz/ 的音,也可以拼成 ’cause。它可用來取代 because,而 cos of 則可取代 because of。我們經常在講話、電子郵件和簡訊中,尤其是在非正式情況中,使用 cos 和 cos of。

Cos 和 cos of 的用法與 because 和 because of 一樣。換言之,cos 後接子句,而 cos of 後接名詞、動名詞或名詞片語。當 cos 引導的原因 (附屬) 子句位在主要子句的前面時,其後通常使用逗點來與主要子句隔開。然而,儘管 because of 這個介系詞片語可放在句首或句末,但 cos of 卻不常用在句首。例如:

  • Mary is absent cos she is ill. (瑪麗因病缺席)
  • Cos he was so tired, he went to bed at 8 pm. (由於很疲憊,他八點就上床睡覺了)
  • John cannot go to work cos of sickness. (約翰因病不能上班)
  • Because of the storm I canceled the business trip to Taipei. (因為暴風雨,我取消了到台北出差)
    = Because of the storm, I canceled the business trip to Taipei.
    = I canceled the business trip to Taipei because of the storm.
    = I canceled the business trip to Taipei cos of the storm.

Reason 的用法

Reason for

Reason 後接介系詞 for (不是 of) 再接名詞或動名詞片語,意為「某事的原因或做某事的原因」。例如:

  • I don’t know the reason for her bad mood. (我不知道她心情不好的原因) (正)
    I don’t know the reason of her bad mood. (誤)
  • There were several reasons for his cruelty to animals. (他虐待動物是出於幾個原因) (正)
    There were several reasons of his cruelty to animals. (誤)
  • Could you tell me your reason(s) for marrying such an ugly woman? (你能告訴我你娶這樣一個醜女人的原因嗎?) (正)
    Could you tell me your reason(s) of marrying such an ugly woman? (誤)

閱讀全文

Not receiving any answer, he sent another email to her.

  • Not receiving any answer, he sent another email to her. (由於沒有收到回信,他又給她寄了一封電子郵件) (正)
  • No receiving any answer, he sent another email to her. (誤)
  • Receiving not any answer, he sent another email to her. (誤)

解說:否定詞放在現在分詞之前置於句首時,不能用 no 來否定現在分詞,而要用 not;換另外一種說法,not 可以放在動名詞或不定詞之前來否定動名詞或不定詞 (如 To be, or not to be …)。分詞構句 Not receiving any answer 是原因子句 Because he did not receive any answer 的減化。

Attempt, try (vv.)

Attempt 和 try 都意為「嘗試;試圖」,但兩者的用法不盡相同。譬如說,在 I’ll try and find my lost pet dog. (我會設法找到我走失的寵狗) 這句中,try 不可用 attempt 來代替,因為 try and (= try to) 為固定用語。

Attempt 意為「企圖;試圖;嘗試」,為較正式之用字,指「做一番努力」、「努力設法」,後面可接不定詞和動名詞,但意思不同,前者意為「嘗試;試圖」,後者意為「試著;試一試」,如 John attempted to finish his creation before December. (約翰試圖在十二月之前完成他的創作);Her father attempted suicide by burning charcoal last night. (她父親昨晚企圖燒炭自殺);Several prisoners attempted to escape but failed. (數名囚犯企圖脫逃,但未成功)。

閱讀全文

後接動名詞或不定詞的動詞 (意思相似)

beginRachel began singing. (瑞秋開始唱歌)Rachel began to sing. (瑞秋開始唱歌)

註:當 begin 為非進行式時態時,其後可以接動名詞或不定詞;若為進行式時態,則其後只能接不定詞,如 Rachel is beginning to sing.。
can't bearSandy can't bear being single. (桑迪無法忍受單身)Sandy can't bear to be single. (桑迪無法忍受單身)
can't standTeresa can't stand working the late shift. (泰瑞莎無法忍受上夜班)Teresa can't stand to work the late shift. (泰瑞莎無法忍受上夜班)
ceaseCindy had ceased caring what happened to him. (辛蒂已不再關心他發生什麼事了)Cindy had ceased to care what happened to him. (辛蒂已不再關心他發生什麼事了)
continueJohn continued crying. (約翰繼續哭)John continued to cry. (約翰繼續哭)
hateMy wife hates doing the dishes. (我太太討厭洗碗)My wife hates to do the dishes. (我太太討厭洗碗)
likeI like reading. (我喜歡閱讀)I like to read. (我喜歡閱讀)
loveFrank loves skateboarding. (法蘭克喜歡溜滑板)Frank loves to skateboard. (法蘭克喜歡溜滑板)
neglectHe had neglected informing us that he would move to Taipei. (他疏忽沒有通知我們他將搬去台北)He had neglected to inform us that he would move to Taipei. (他疏忽沒有通知我們他將搬去台北)
preferThey prefer having dinner at 7 PM. (他們較喜歡七點吃晚飯)They prefer to have dinner at 7 PM. (他們較喜歡七點吃晚飯)
proposeHow do you propose explaining your delay? (你打算如何解釋你的延誤?)How do you propose to explain your delay? (你打算如何解釋你的延誤?)
startNeil started learning English when he was five. (尼爾五歲開始學英文)Neil started to learn English when he was five. (尼爾五歲開始學英文)

註:當 start 為非進行式時態時,其後可以接動名詞或不定詞;若為進行式時態,則其後只能接不定詞,如 Rachel is starting to sing.。

閱讀全文

介系詞的受詞

介系詞後面所接的字被稱為介系詞的受詞。介系詞都是以名詞類當受詞,包括名詞 (片語)、代名詞、動名詞 (片語) 和名詞子句。

名詞 (片語) 當介系詞的受詞時通常不會發生文法上的問題,如 He borrowed a lot of money from the bank. (他向銀行借了許多錢) 這句中的名詞 (片語) the bank 是介系詞 from 的受詞。然而,其他名詞類在當介系詞的受詞時,或多或少都會有文法錯誤的情況發生。茲將可能發生錯誤的情況說明如下:

閱讀全文