如何強調句中的元素(二)

The thing, the one/only/first thing, something

The thing

我們可以用 the thing (+ 形容詞子句) 當主詞,後接 BE 動詞 (is 或 was) 來強調 BE 動詞後面的元素 (即主詞補語)。這與 Wh-分裂句的作用一樣,但比較不是那麼正式。例如:

  • The thing I love about John is his loyalty to his wife. (我喜歡約翰的一點是,他對他太太的忠誠)
    = What I love about John is his loyalty to his wife.

即使被強調的元素為複數,BE 動詞亦用單數,因為 the thing 是單數名詞。例如:

  • The thing I like most about Penghu is the historic sites. (我最喜歡澎湖的地方是歷史古蹟)
    = What I like most about Penghu is the historic sites.

BE 動詞後面要強調的元素也可以是連接詞 that 所引導的名詞子句。在非正式情況中,有人會將 that 省略,但筆者期期以為不可,因為這是錯誤的文法。例如:

  • The thing you need to remember is that you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (你必須記住的是,你已借給詹姆斯五萬元) (正)
    = What you need to remember is that you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (正)
  • The thing you need to remember is you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (誤)

閱讀全文

Prefer 的用法

Prefer 是個及物動詞,意為「更喜歡,較喜歡;寧願,寧可,更願意,更希望」。由於是狀態動詞,prefer 本身不用進行式,其後可接名詞 (片語)、不定詞或動名詞當受詞。Prefer 經常與介系詞 to 所引導的介系詞片語連用來比較兩個事物或兩個動作。例如:

  • Do you prefer summer or winter? (你比較喜歡夏天還是冬天?)
  • He prefers his daughter to live near him. (他更希望他女兒住在他附近)
  • Do you prefer to exercise indoors or outdoors? (你比較喜歡在室內還是戶外運動?)
  • She prefers living in Kaohsiung. (她比較喜歡住高雄)
  • I prefer white wine to red. (比起紅葡萄酒,我更喜歡白葡萄酒)
  • A lot of people prefer the quiet countryside to the noisy cities. (許多人喜歡寧靜的鄉村更勝於喧囂的城市)
  • Most people prefer watching television to reading books. (比起看書,大多數人更喜歡看電視)

必須注意的是,prefer… to… 是固定搭配,不可使用 than 來替代介系詞 to。例如:
閱讀全文

Promise 須接含有 will 或 would 的名詞子句或不定詞

  • The government have promised (that) they’ll reduce income taxes. (政府已承諾要降低所得稅) (正)
    The government have promised (that) they reduce income taxes. (誤)
  • I promise (that) I won’t tell your wife. (我答應不會告訴你太太) (正)
    I promise (that) I don’t tell your wife. (誤)

解說:Promise 可當名詞和動詞用,主要意為「允諾,答應;保證」。用作動詞時,promise 可接 that 引導的名詞子句 (that 可以省略) 或帶 to 的不定詞。若接名詞子句,子句中須有 will 或 would。下面為使用過去式 would 和不定詞的例句:

  • He promised (that) he would attend my wedding on Saturday.
    = He promised to attend my wedding on Saturday. (他保證週六會參加我的婚禮) (正)

Miss 後接動名詞

  • I miss living in the country. (我懷念鄉村生活) (正)
  • I miss to live in the country. (誤)

解說:Miss 可當動詞和名詞用,當動詞時有「未擊中;未達到;未出現;未出席;未趕上;未聽見;未領會;錯過;避開;想念;懷念」等常用的意思,但不管是那個意思,其後須接名詞或動名詞,不可接不定詞。再舉數例供大家參考:

  • John doesn’t want to miss seeing that movie on TV tonight. (約翰不想錯過今晚電視播放的那部電影) (正)
    John doesn’t want to miss to see that movie on TV tonight. (誤)
  • They narrowly missed being killed in the terror attack. (他們差一點在恐怖攻擊中喪命) (正)
    They narrowly missed to be killed in the terror attack. (誤)
  • Guy missed coming to my birthday party on Sunday. (星期天蓋伊沒來參加我的生日派對) (正)
    Guy missed to come to my birthday party on Sunday. (誤)

用作比較的兩個成分要對仗工整

  • It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out. (擬定計劃比執行計劃來得容易) (正)
  • It is easier to make a plan than carrying it out. (誤)

解說:這句的主詞是不定詞片語 “to make a plan”,it 是假主詞;用作比較的兩個成分要對仗工整,即詞類和結構都要一致,所以 than 後面也要使用不定詞片語。再舉一例:”It’s easier said than done.” (說來容易做來難),句中作比較的兩個成分 said 和 done 都是過去分詞。

Wait 還是 wait for 呢?

Wait 意為「等,等候」,可當及物和不及物動詞用,若受詞為時間,其後可接或不接介系詞 for。例如:

  • They waited hours to get the tickets for the exhibition. (他們等了好幾個小時才買到展覽會入場券) (正)
    They waited for hours to get the tickets for the exhibition. (正)
  • I waited 30 minutes for the bus. (我等了三十分鐘公車) (正)
    I waited for 30 minutes for the bus. (正)

然而,當受詞為人事物時,wait 的後面須有 for。例如:

閱讀全文

Reason 的用法

Reason for

Reason 後接介系詞 for (不是 of) 再接名詞或動名詞片語,意為「某事的原因或做某事的原因」。例如:

  • I don’t know the reason for her bad mood. (我不知道她心情不好的原因) (正)
    I don’t know the reason of her bad mood. (誤)
  • There were several reasons for his cruelty to animals. (他虐待動物是出於幾個原因) (正)
    There were several reasons of his cruelty to animals. (誤)
  • Could you tell me your reason(s) for marrying such an ugly woman? (你能告訴我你娶這樣一個醜女人的原因嗎?) (正)
    Could you tell me your reason(s) of marrying such an ugly woman? (誤)

閱讀全文

Not receiving any answer, he sent another email to her.

  • Not receiving any answer, he sent another email to her. (由於沒有收到回信,他又給她寄了一封電子郵件) (正)
  • No receiving any answer, he sent another email to her. (誤)
  • Receiving not any answer, he sent another email to her. (誤)

解說:否定詞放在現在分詞之前置於句首時,不能用 no 來否定現在分詞,而要用 not;換另外一種說法,not 可以放在動名詞或不定詞之前來否定動名詞或不定詞 (如 To be, or not to be …)。分詞構句 Not receiving any answer 是原因子句 Because he did not receive any answer 的減化。

That river is very dangerous to swim in.

  • That river is very dangerous to swim in. (在那條河裡游泳很危險) (正)
  • That river is very dangerous to swim. (誤)

解說:不定詞經常放在敘述形容詞之後,用來表示該敘述形容詞所表述的情狀的原因。當這個不定詞為不及物動詞時,其後的介詞不可缺少,如本句中的 in,意指「在那條河裡」(in that river)。