如何強調句中的元素(二)

The thing, the one/only/first thing, something

The thing

我們可以用 the thing (+ 形容詞子句) 當主詞,後接 BE 動詞 (is 或 was) 來強調 BE 動詞後面的元素 (即主詞補語)。這與 Wh-分裂句的作用一樣,但比較不是那麼正式。例如:

  • The thing I love about John is his loyalty to his wife. (我喜歡約翰的一點是,他對他太太的忠誠)
    = What I love about John is his loyalty to his wife.

即使被強調的元素為複數,BE 動詞亦用單數,因為 the thing 是單數名詞。例如:

  • The thing I like most about Penghu is the historic sites. (我最喜歡澎湖的地方是歷史古蹟)
    = What I like most about Penghu is the historic sites.

BE 動詞後面要強調的元素也可以是連接詞 that 所引導的名詞子句。在非正式情況中,有人會將 that 省略,但筆者期期以為不可,因為這是錯誤的文法。例如:

  • The thing you need to remember is that you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (你必須記住的是,你已借給詹姆斯五萬元) (正)
    = What you need to remember is that you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (正)
  • The thing you need to remember is you’ve lent James 50,000 dollars. (誤)

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Prefer 的用法

Prefer 是個及物動詞,意為「更喜歡,較喜歡;寧願,寧可,更願意,更希望」。由於是狀態動詞,prefer 本身不用進行式,其後可接名詞 (片語)、不定詞或動名詞當受詞。Prefer 經常與介系詞 to 所引導的介系詞片語連用來比較兩個事物或兩個動作。例如:

  • Do you prefer summer or winter? (你比較喜歡夏天還是冬天?)
  • He prefers his daughter to live near him. (他更希望他女兒住在他附近)
  • Do you prefer to exercise indoors or outdoors? (你比較喜歡在室內還是戶外運動?)
  • She prefers living in Kaohsiung. (她比較喜歡住高雄)
  • I prefer white wine to red. (比起紅葡萄酒,我更喜歡白葡萄酒)
  • A lot of people prefer the quiet countryside to the noisy cities. (許多人喜歡寧靜的鄉村更勝於喧囂的城市)
  • Most people prefer watching television to reading books. (比起看書,大多數人更喜歡看電視)

必須注意的是,prefer… to… 是固定搭配,不可使用 than 來替代介系詞 to。例如:
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Promise 須接含有 will 或 would 的名詞子句或不定詞

  • The government have promised (that) they’ll reduce income taxes. (政府已承諾要降低所得稅) (正)
    The government have promised (that) they reduce income taxes. (誤)
  • I promise (that) I won’t tell your wife. (我答應不會告訴你太太) (正)
    I promise (that) I don’t tell your wife. (誤)

解說:Promise 可當名詞和動詞用,主要意為「允諾,答應;保證」。用作動詞時,promise 可接 that 引導的名詞子句 (that 可以省略) 或帶 to 的不定詞。若接名詞子句,子句中須有 will 或 would。下面為使用過去式 would 和不定詞的例句:

  • He promised (that) he would attend my wedding on Saturday.
    = He promised to attend my wedding on Saturday. (他保證週六會參加我的婚禮) (正)

Miss 後接動名詞

  • I miss living in the country. (我懷念鄉村生活) (正)
  • I miss to live in the country. (誤)

解說:Miss 可當動詞和名詞用,當動詞時有「未擊中;未達到;未出現;未出席;未趕上;未聽見;未領會;錯過;避開;想念;懷念」等常用的意思,但不管是那個意思,其後須接名詞或動名詞,不可接不定詞。再舉數例供大家參考:

  • John doesn’t want to miss seeing that movie on TV tonight. (約翰不想錯過今晚電視播放的那部電影) (正)
    John doesn’t want to miss to see that movie on TV tonight. (誤)
  • They narrowly missed being killed in the terror attack. (他們差一點在恐怖攻擊中喪命) (正)
    They narrowly missed to be killed in the terror attack. (誤)
  • Guy missed coming to my birthday party on Sunday. (星期天蓋伊沒來參加我的生日派對) (正)
    Guy missed to come to my birthday party on Sunday. (誤)

用作比較的兩個成分要對仗工整

  • It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out. (擬定計劃比執行計劃來得容易) (正)
  • It is easier to make a plan than carrying it out. (誤)

解說:這句的主詞是不定詞片語 “to make a plan”,it 是假主詞;用作比較的兩個成分要對仗工整,即詞類和結構都要一致,所以 than 後面也要使用不定詞片語。再舉一例:”It’s easier said than done.” (說來容易做來難),句中作比較的兩個成分 said 和 done 都是過去分詞。

Wait 還是 wait for 呢?

Wait 意為「等,等候」,可當及物和不及物動詞用,若受詞為時間,其後可接或不接介系詞 for。例如:

  • They waited hours to get the tickets for the exhibition. (他們等了好幾個小時才買到展覽會入場券) (正)
    They waited for hours to get the tickets for the exhibition. (正)
  • I waited 30 minutes for the bus. (我等了三十分鐘公車) (正)
    I waited for 30 minutes for the bus. (正)

然而,當受詞為人事物時,wait 的後面須有 for。例如:
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Reason 的用法

Reason for

Reason 後接介系詞 for (不是 of) 再接名詞或動名詞片語,意為「某事的原因或做某事的原因」。例如:

  • I don’t know the reason for her bad mood. (我不知道她心情不好的原因) (正)
    I don’t know the reason of her bad mood. (誤)
  • There were several reasons for his cruelty to animals. (他虐待動物是出於幾個原因) (正)
    There were several reasons of his cruelty to animals. (誤)
  • Could you tell me your reason(s) for marrying such an ugly woman? (你能告訴我你娶這樣一個醜女人的原因嗎?) (正)
    Could you tell me your reason(s) of marrying such an ugly woman? (誤)

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