Those who 的句型

Those (people) who = They/People who = Such (people) as + 複數動詞 – 意為「凡是…的人們」。這是 those who 的複數句型,但我們亦可用下面的單數句型來表達相同的意思:He/One who = Anyone who = Whoever + 單數動詞 – 意為「凡是…的人」。請看下面的例句:

Those who have money do not want for friends. (凡是有錢的人都不會缺乏朋友)
= Such as have money do not want for friends. (在這句中,as是當關係代名詞)
= He who has money does not want for friends.
= Whoever has money does not want for friends. (Whoever = Anyone who)

下面兩句分別是 those who (主格) 的受格 those whom 和所有格 those whose的應用:

No distance can sever those whom the fate unites. (有緣千里來相會)
Almighty Heaven is not indifferent to those whose hearts are earnest. (皇天不負苦心人)

Such…as 和 such…that 的意義有何不同

有位網友寫 e-mail 問筆者 as (準關係代名詞) 和 that (關係代名詞) 在 such 之後的意義有何不同。筆者就以下面兩個例句來做說明:

  1. This is the same pen as I lost.
  2. This is the same pen that I lost.

第 1 句意為「這支筆跟我所遺失的筆是同一類型」。句中 as 為準關代,代替前面的名詞(先行詞) pen,且是形容詞子句 as I lost 中動詞 lost 的受詞。

第 2 句意為「這支筆跟我所遺失的筆是同一支筆」。句中 that 為一般關代,代替前面的名詞 pen,而且也是形容詞子句 that I lost中動詞 lost 的受詞。

總而言之,as 是表示同一類型的筆,而 that 是表示同一支筆。再舉一例:

John was not such a student as would bully his classmates.

這句意為「約翰不是那種會欺負同學的學生」。句中 as 代替前面的名詞 student,且是形容詞子句 as would bully his classmates 的主詞。