完成式不定詞

我們有時會在 be、claim、expect、hate、hope、like、love、prefer、pretend 和 seem 等動詞後面使用完成式不定詞 (perfect infinitive,即 to + have + P.P.) 來表示該完成式動作比這些動詞還要早發生,但完成式不定詞的動作可能是過去的事實,也可能是過去的非事實 (與過去事實相反)。

完成式不定詞的動作係過去的事實。例如:

  • Peter claims to have met the president, but most of us don’t believe him. (彼得聲稱見過總統,但我們大多不信) - 至於彼得是否真的見過總統並不重要,也不影響它在英文中被視為「過去的事實」這一事實。
    = Peter claims (that) he has met the president, but most of us don’t believe him.
  • I seem to have lost my way. (我好像迷路了)
    = It seems to me that I have lost my way.
  • He seems to have gone out. (他似乎已經出門了)
  • John hated to have quarreled with his wife. (跟太太吵了一架,約翰感到遺憾)

完成式不定詞的動作係與過去的事實相反。這種過去的非事實主要用在下列句型:

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