Even 的副詞用法 (一)

Even 當副詞用時意為「(用來表示令人驚訝、非比尋常、出乎意料或極端的事物) 竟然,甚至,連,即使」,通常位在句子的中間,亦即位在主詞和主動詞之間 (即普通動詞之前),或位在語氣助動詞或第一個助動詞之後,或位在當主動詞的 BE 動詞之後。例如:

  • Mary left without even apologizing. (瑪麗竟然沒有道歉就離開了)
  • Some people never even read a newspaper, let alone a book. (有些人從不看報紙,遑論讀書了)
  • My mother hasn’t even started making dinner. (我媽媽竟然還沒開始做晚飯)
  • Peter didn’t even have enough money to get a Universiade ticket. (彼得甚至沒有足夠的錢來買世大運門票)
  • Tom doesn’t even know who I am. (湯姆甚至連我是誰都不知道)
  • It’s a really useful website if you’re interested in online games. There’s even a section on walkthroughs and cheats. (如果你對線上遊戲有興趣,那麼它是個很有用的網站。它甚至有個教學和密技區)

我們可以將 even 或 not even 放在句中我們要強調的字詞或片語前面。例如:

  • Everyone likes money – even a five-year-old does. (每個人都喜歡錢 - 即使是五歲小孩也喜歡)
  • Even the dog refused to eat it. (連狗都不吃這東西)
  • John never stopped working, not even on New Year’s Eve/New Year’s Day. (約翰從未停止工作,連除夕/元旦都沒有)
  • Don’t tell anyone, not even your husband. (別告訴任何人,連你先生也不要說)

在非正式場合說話時,even 有時用在它所修飾的字詞後面,或用在句末來表示強調或加強語氣。Even 位在其所修飾的字詞後面,主要是在表示更準確或更詳細的說法,此時它意為「甚至可以說,更確切地說,其實」(more exactly)。例如:

  • New York is a huge city, larger even than Tokyo. (紐約是個大城市,甚至比東京還大)
  • The task might be difficult, impossible even. (這項任務可能很困難,甚至可以說不可能完成)
  • Most of us find some of his habits somewhat unpleasant, disgusting even. (我們大多數人都覺得他的一些習慣頗令人討厭,甚至可以說是令人作嘔)
  • I can’t remember Professor Lee at all. I’ve forgotten that he’d been my grammar teacher even. (我一點都記不得李教授了。我甚至忘記了他曾經是我的文法老師)
    - 平常的位置:I can’t remember Professor Lee at all. I’ve even forgotten that he’d been my grammar teacher.

Even 經常用來修飾形容詞和副詞的比較級以表示強調或加強語氣。Even 在此意為「更加,愈加,甚至更」。例如:

  • It’s even hotter today than it was yesterday. (今天甚至比昨天還要熱)
  • Things were bad, but they are even worse under the current government. (過去情況很糟,但在現任政府領導下情況更糟)
  • The female singer has become even richer, and her concerts even more popular. (這位女歌手已變得更有錢,而她的演唱會也更受歡迎)