However, whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever, whoever

如果我們在 how, what, which, when, where 和 who 等 wh 字後面加上 -ever,它們的意思就會改變而變成:

However:不管怎樣,無論如何
Whatever:不管怎樣,無論什麼;任何事物,任何東西
Whichever:無論哪個,無論哪些;任何一個
Whenever:無論何時;每當,任何時候
Wherever:無論到 (或在) 哪裡,無論什麼地方;任何地方
Whoever:無論什麼人;任何人

  • You can do it however you like. (你想怎麼做都行)
  • However you look at it, it’s still a mess. (無論你怎麼看,它還是一團糟)
  • Whatever I say I always seem to get it wrong. (無論我說什麼,似乎總是說錯)
  • Do whatever you want – it won’t affect me. (你想做什麼就做什麼 — 這對我不會有影響)
  • Please strike out whichever option does not apply to you. (請劃掉不適合您的選項)
  • Which restaurant? — Whichever is nearest. (哪家餐廳? ─ 最近的那家)
  • Whenever I go there John seems to be asleep. (每次我去那裡,約翰似乎都在睡覺)
  • Wherever I go I always seem to bump into Mary. (無論走到哪裡,我似乎總是會碰到瑪麗)
  • There’s a reward for whoever finishes first. (誰先完成,誰就有獎勵)

在問句中,我們可以使用 however, whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever 和 whoever 等這些有 -ever 的字來代替 how, what, which, when, where 和 who 等這些沒有 -ever 的字以加強語氣,此時這些有 -ever 的字意為「究竟…,到底…」,係在表示驚訝。說話時,-ever 為重音所在。例如:

  • However will you manage to live on such a small income? (你到底要如何靠這麼微薄的收入來維持生活?)
    - 語氣比 How will you manage …? 來得強烈。
  • However did you manage to get him to agree to that? (你究竟是怎樣成功地讓他同意那件事?)
    - 語氣比 How did you manage …? 來得強烈。
  • Kevin, whatever are you doing with that rod? (凱文,你拿著那根竿子,到底在幹什麼?)
    - 語氣比 What are you doing …? 來得強烈。(以下各句的解釋亦同)
  • Whatever’s that purple thing on your plate? (你盤子裡那團紫色的東西到底是什麼?)
  • Whichever did she choose? (她到底選了哪一個?)
  • Whichever of them did she marry? (她到底嫁給他們之中的哪一個?)
  • Whenever do you get the time to do these things? (你到底什麼時候有時間做這些事情?)
  • Whenever did Amy see a doctor? (艾美究竟什麼時候看過醫生?)
  • Wherever did you find that pen? (你究竟在哪裡找到那支筆?)
  • Wherever does he get the money from to go on all these exotic journeys? (他究竟從哪裡弄到錢去進行這些異國旅行?)
  • Whoever told you that? (究竟是誰告訴你的?)
  • Whoever heard of such a thing? (到底是誰聽過這樣的事?)

我們可以單獨使用 whatever, whenever, wherever 和 whoever 來以非特定的方式指人和事物。此時這些有 -ever 的字意為「任何…」。例如:

  • So, I’ll bring beer. (那麼我就帶啤酒來)
    Sure, whatever (= bring that or anything else). (當然可以,帶什麼都行)
  • You add it, subtract it, or whatever. (你把它加上、減去或做什麼計算都行)
  • We will start work in May or whenever. (我們將在五月或其他任何時候開始工作)
  • I’d like to go to London, Paris, or wherever. (我想去倫敦、巴黎或其他任何地方)
  • If you talk to the manager or whoever, you’ll be able to find out what’s happening. (如果你跟經理或其他任何人交談,你將能了解發生了什麼事)

有些人有時會以諷刺或不尊重的方式使用 whatever,通常是以誇張的方式來說話 (例如,用誇張的語調),以表示他們不感興趣。例如:

  • A: I’ll call you. (A:我會打電話給你)
    B: Whatever. (B:隨便)
  • A: What do you want to do? (A:你想做什麼呢?)
    B: Whatever. (B:無所謂)

Whatsoever

Whatsoever 是 whatever 的加強語氣形式,意為「無論怎樣,絲毫,任何」,最常出現在否定詞或否定片語之後。例如:

  • Kevin seems to have no respect for authority whatsoever. (凱文似乎對權威一點也不尊重)
  • I can see no reason whatsoever why Helen should not attend classes. (我看不出海倫有任何理由不去上課)
  • A: Did you have any idea what was happening last night? (A:你知道昨晚發生了什麼嗎?)
    B: None whatsoever. (B:完全不知道)
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