Perquisite vs. prerequisite vs. requisite

Perquisite 僅當名詞用,意為「額外的津貼,補貼;薪資以外的實物或好處;特權」,如 One perquisite of his new post was a reserved parking place. (他的新職位有一項實質的好處,那就是一個專用的停車位)。Perquisite 後面通常接介系詞 of,如 the perquisites of her new job (她的新工作的額外津貼)。

Perquisite 是個正式用字,口語一般都使用它的縮略字 perk。由於 perk 是個俚語,因此僅限用於口語和非正式場合,如 What perks does this job give you? (這份工作給你什麼額外補貼?)。

Prerequisite 可當名詞和形容詞用,前者意為「先決條件;前提 」,如 A reasonable proficiency in English is a prerequisite of/for joining this advanced course. (相當程度地精通英語是參加這門高級課程的先決條件)。當形容詞用時,意為「不可或缺的,必要的;事先需要的」,如 The prerequisite forms must be filed at least a week before the interview. (必要的表格必須在面試之前至少一個禮拜提出)。

Prerequisite 通常接介系詞 for 或 to,但有時也跟 of 連用,如 Membership in a political party is a prerequisite for [to, of] voting in a primary election in this state. (黨員資格是參加本州初選投票的先決條件)。

Requisite 這個字亦當名詞和形容詞用,前者意為「必需品;必要條件」,如 A good book is a requisite for long journeys. (一本好書是長途旅行必備之物)。當形容詞用時,意為「不可或缺的,必要的,需要的」,如 Jack lacked the requisite skills and knowledge for the job. (傑克欠缺從事這項工作所需要的技能和知識)。

Requisite 當名詞用時通常接介系詞 for 或 of,如 Self-esteem, self-judgment and self-will are said to be the three requisites of independence. (Cambridge Dictionary) (自尊、自量和堅持自我據說是自立的三個必備條件)。

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