Divide, divide up (vv.)

Divide 可當及物和不及物動詞用,經常與介系詞 into 和 in 連用 (divide sth into pairs/groups/parts 等等),意為「分;分成;劃分;分割」,如 The teacher divided the class into three groups. (老師把全班分成三個小組);The film divides into two distinct halves. (影片分成明顯不同的兩半);He divided his students in half. (他將他的學生分成兩半)。這動詞亦常與 among 和 between 連用 (divide sth between/among sb),意為「分配;分發;分享」,如 The children divided the candy between/among themselves. (孩子們把糖果分吃了);After his death his property was divided between/among his children. (他死後,他的財產由他的孩子們平分);The chamber was nearly equally divided between conservative and liberal deputies. (議會中保守派和自由派議員的人數幾乎各半);The prize money will be equally divided between/among the three winners. (獎金將由三名優勝者均分)。

Divide 亦不時與 from 連用 (divide sth from sth),意為「使分開;使隔開」,如 A low wall divides our garden from theirs. (一道矮牆把我們的花園和他們的隔開);The railway divides his family’s land from the plains below. (鐵路把他家的土地與下面的平原隔開)。這動詞還可跟 over, on 和 upon 連用來表示「分裂;意見分歧」的意思,如 The Board of Directors divided on [upon, over] the new project. (董事會對這個新計劃意見分歧);My family divided on [upon, over] almost every political issue. (我家人對幾乎每個政治議題都各持己見)。此外,divide 與 with 連用的情況亦所在多有,其句型與 divide sth between/among sb 等量齊觀,即 divide sth with sb,意思同樣為「分配;分發;分享」,如 Work out how you would like to divide the money with us. (商量一下,你打算如何跟我們分這筆錢);You have to divide the cake with your sister. (你必須跟你妹妹分吃這塊蛋糕)。

Divide 也是數學上不可或缺的用字,其後接 by (divide sth by sth),意為「除以」,若接 into (divide sth into sth),則意為「除」,如 10 divided by 2 is/equals 5. (10 除以 2 等於 5);Divide 10 by 2 (10 除以 2 或用 2 除 10);2 divides into 10 5 times./Two divides into ten 5 times. (2 除 10 得 5);Divide 2 into 10 (2 除 10)。divide by 除了「除以」的意思外,還有一個比較普遍化的意思,那就是「使分歧;使分裂」,如 The ruling class was divided by internal conflicts. (統治階級因內部衝突而分裂);We are divided by our nationalities, our languages, and our religions. (我們因國籍、語言和宗教信仰的不同而分歧)。

至於 divide up,這片語與 divide 完全同義,意為「分成;分開;分割;分配;分發;分享」,如 The prize money will be equally divided up between/among the three winners. (獎金將由三名優勝者均分);The teacher divided the class up into three groups. (老師把全班分成三個小組);a secret Soviet-German pack for dividing/dividing up Europe in 1940 (1940 年瓜分歐洲的蘇德秘密條約)。職是之故,divide up 跟 break up, think up 及其它與 up 組成的片語一樣,在某些情況中會被視為贅詞,因為 up 被認為是多餘的。然而,divide 和 divide up 都是正規英語。這些 up 組成的片語動詞有些是慣用語 (break 和 break up 並非相同的動作 — break 可意為「打破」或「打碎」,而 break up 一定是「打碎」),有些是用來加強語氣或基於文體的需要。當 up 可省略時,保守派人士通常選擇省略 up 以求文體的簡潔。