老番癲;老糊塗

英文:dotard (n.)

說明:Dotard 這個字為美式英語,英國出版的英文字典大多未收錄。不過,英國詩人暨劇作家湯瑪斯‧蘭多夫 (Thomas Randolph) 在其 1632 年所寫的喜劇《The Jealous Lovers》中曾使用這個字。根據《韋氏詞典》(Merriam-Webster),這個單詞首次使用是在 14 世紀,當初的意思是「傻瓜;蠢蛋;低能,弱智者」(imbecile)。根據美國有線電視新聞網 (CNN) 報導,這個字目前的使用率並不高。

然而,在北韓領導人金正恩罵美國總統川普是老番癲 (dotard) 之後,這個詞立即引起網路熱搜,成為舉世皆知的字彙。根據《韋氏詞典》,dotard 意為 “a person in his or her dotage”,其中 dotage 的意思是「衰老,年邁」,而 in one’s dotage 意為「年老糊塗;年老昏聵」。

例句:

  • Donald hated being treated as a dotard. (唐納討厭被看成老番癲)
  • Our boss is a dotard and we don’t want to work for him anymore. (我們老闆是個老糊塗,我們不想再為他工作了)

全職媽媽

英文:stay-at-home mom (n.)

說明:stay-at-home 可當名詞和形容詞用,前者意為「深居簡出者,老是留在家裡的人,不愛出門的人,戀家的人」,後者意為「不愛出門的,戀家的」,這裡是用作形容詞。Stay-at-home mom 與 working mom 相對,後者意為「在職媽媽;上班族媽媽」,亦即有孩子的職業婦女或回家還要照顧小孩的職業婦女。

例句:

  • My mom was a stay-at-home mom and she took care of and raised three kids. (我母親過去是個全職媽媽,照顧和撫養三個小孩)
  • Most stay-at- home moms aren’t rich. Sometimes it’s cheaper to stay home than to pay for daycare. (大多數全職媽媽並不富裕。有時自己在家顧小孩比日間托育的花費來得低廉)
  • Results from a survey show that contrary to the popular belief, working mothers feel that working is beneficial to motherhood and overall family life. (一項調查的結果顯示,與一般看法相反的是,上班族媽媽認為,工作有益於身為人母者及家庭整體生活)

老鼠會

英文:pyramid scheme (n.)

說明:又稱「金字塔式騙局」。老鼠會在大多數國家都是非法的。至於合法的「多層次傳銷」,英文叫做 multi-level marketing,經常縮寫為 MLM。

例句:

  • That’s a pyramid scheme! Don’t fall for it! (那是老鼠會!別受騙上當!)
  • Quite a few people think that multi-level marketing (MLM) is, in reality, the legalized version of the pyramid scheme. (相當多的人認為,多層次傳銷實際上是合法版的老鼠會)

回不去了

英文:There can be no going back.

說明:這句不僅限用於男女或婚姻關係,舉凡無法回頭或沒有退路的情況都可用它來表示。

例句:

  • My husband has told me his affair with that woman is at an end although they remain friends. And he has told me he still loves me, but I say there can be no going back after what has happened. (我先生對我說,他跟那女人的戀情已經結束,不過他們還是朋友。他也對我說,他仍愛著我,但我說,在發生了這件事之後,回不去了)
  • I have to divorce because there can be no going back after what we have been through. (我必須離婚,因為我們在歷經了這一切之後,回不去了)
  • There can be no going back. Donald Trump has been elected the 45th President of the United States. (回不去了。川普已當選美國第 45 任總統)

自由行

英文:independent tour/travel (n.)

說明:旅遊方式相似的「自助旅行」叫做 backpacking (背包客:backpacker)。跟團旅行有好幾種說法,包括 escorted tour, group tour, guided tour, escorted group tour, guided group tour 等。

例句:

  • I prefer independent tours to escorted tours. (我喜歡自由行更勝於跟團旅行)
  • North Korea independent tours are suitable for those who prefer to travel alone. (北韓自由行適合那些比較喜歡獨自旅行的人)

老樣子

英文:same old, same old (n.)

說明:中文的「老套;老掉牙;千篇一律」亦可用 (the) same old, same old 這一美國口語來表示。有人認為它是從同義片語 “the same old thing” 衍生而來;有時亦寫成 same old same old。

例句:

  • A: How are things at work? / How’s work going? (工作情況怎麼樣?)
    B: Oh, same old, same old. (哦,老樣子)
  • The same old same old! The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. (老套了!富者越富、貧者越貧)
  • I just keep on doing the same old, same old every day and soon I’m going to die of boredom! (我每天都千篇一律做同樣的事情,不了多久我將因無聊而死!)
  • John gets tired of eating the same old thing for breakfast. (約翰厭倦早餐都吃同樣的東西)

肉腳

英文:wuss, wussy (n.)

說明:肉腳是台語,有很爛、很菜的意思,指的是軟弱沒有用的人。最初只有肉腳,後來又有「滷肉腳」,意思一樣,跟國語的軟腳蝦同義。Wussy 是由 wimp (懦夫;軟腳蝦;懦弱的人) 和 pussy (娘炮;娘娘腔) 組合而成。

例句:

  • Don’t be such a wuss all the time. (別一直這麼肉腳)
  • Tom is scared to say what he is thinking. What a wuss! (湯姆不敢說出他心裡所想的事情。真是肉腳!)
  • Jack, you’re such a wussy! (傑克,你很肉腳!)

好漢不吃眼前虧

英文:He who fights and runs away lives to fight another day.

說明:有時亦寫成 He who fights and runs away may live to fight another day.,而 lives to 和 may live to 之前經常加逗點。To live to do something 意為「活到做 … (活得夠久而得以做某事)」,如 I will live to see Apple roll out iPhone 20. (我會活到見證蘋果推出 iPhone 20)。

例句:

  • The school bully told Roger to meet him in the playground after school, but Roger didn’t keep the appointment. When his friends called him a coward, Roger shrugged and said, “He who fights and runs away, lives (or may live) to fight another day.” (那個學校惡霸要羅傑放學後去操場見他,但羅傑爽約。當羅傑的朋友叫他懦夫時,羅傑聳聳肩說:「好漢不吃眼前虧」)

名聲臭了;名譽掃地

英文:Someone’s name is mud. (idiom)

說明:Someone’s name is mud 這成語的出處有幾種不同的說法,但一般大多認為源自一位名叫 Samuel Mudd 的美國醫生。Dr. Mudd 因幫 1865 年刺殺林肯總統的兇手 John Wilkes Booth 接骨而被判同謀罪,因此名聲掃地。

例句:

  • His name’s mud in the school after what happened yesterday. (昨天的事情發生之後,他在學校的名聲就臭了)
  • If any athletes test positive for a banned substance, their name will be mud. (倘若有任何運動員因禁藥檢測呈現陽性反應,它們的名譽就掃地了)

自我感覺良好

英文:self-complacent (adj.); self-complacency (n.)

說明:complacent 是個貶抑詞,意為「自滿的,自鳴得意的,沾沾自喜的」。它的名詞為 complacence 或 complacency。「自我感覺良好」現在普遍被視為一個人的「自戀」(narcissistic; narcissism),活在自我陶醉中。

例句:

  • The state of the economy is worsening, so there is no reason for the government to be self-complacent. (經濟狀況日趨惡化,政府沒有理由自我感覺良好)
  • The president’s self-complacency has brought about a lot of negative criticism and emotional attacks. (總統的自我感覺良好招致許多負面批評及情緒性抨擊)