Prefer 的用法

Prefer 是個及物動詞,意為「更喜歡,較喜歡;寧願,寧可,更願意,更希望」。由於是狀態動詞,prefer 本身不用進行式,其後可接名詞 (片語)、不定詞或動名詞當受詞。Prefer 經常與介系詞 to 所引導的介系詞片語連用來比較兩個事物或兩個動作。例如:

  • Do you prefer summer or winter? (你比較喜歡夏天還是冬天?)
  • He prefers his daughter to live near him. (他更希望他女兒住在他附近)
  • Do you prefer to exercise indoors or outdoors? (你比較喜歡在室內還是戶外運動?)
  • She prefers living in Kaohsiung. (她比較喜歡住高雄)
  • I prefer white wine to red. (比起紅葡萄酒,我更喜歡白葡萄酒)
  • A lot of people prefer the quiet countryside to the noisy cities. (許多人喜歡寧靜的鄉村更勝於喧囂的城市)
  • Most people prefer watching television to reading books. (比起看書,大多數人更喜歡看電視)

必須注意的是,prefer… to… 是固定搭配,不可使用 than 來替代介系詞 to。例如:
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If Only

If only 可用來表示與現在、過去或未來事實相反的強烈願望,主要用於口語。它的意思和用法跟 I wish 一樣,但語氣比較強烈。

“If only” 用於現在的情況

句型

If only + 主詞 + 過去簡單式

用法

If only + 主詞 + 過去簡單式係表示與現在事實相反的願望,意為「但願,真希望,要是…就好了」。

例句:

  • If only I were rich. (但願我很有錢)
  • If only I could skateboard. (真希望我會溜滑板)
  • If only I had a job at that company. (我要是在那家公司工作就好了)

在比較正式的情況中,有時可以使用 were 來代替 was。例如:

  • If only she was a good teacher. (但願她是個好老師)
  • If only she were a good teacher.

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Were To

“Were to” 用於現在的情況

句型

If … were to + verb …, …

用法

“Were to” 可用於現在的時間來強調此條件句所述的情況極不可能或完全不可能發生或非常可怕 (讓人不敢再想下去)。注意:這種特殊句型只用於 if 子句。

例句:

  • If Sarah were to be rich, she would be horribly obnoxious. (如果莎拉富有,她會很討人厭) - 莎拉極不可能富有。
  • If I were to have no friends, who would I spend my time with? (如果我沒有朋友,我要跟誰消磨時間呢?) - 沒有朋友是個可怕的想法。
  • If the sun were to rise in the west, my sister would go out with you. (如果太陽從西邊出來,我妹妹就會跟你交往) - 太陽絕對不可能從西邊出來。

“Were to” 用於未來的情況

句型

If … were to + verb …, …

用法

“Were to” 可用於未來的時間來強調此條件句所述的情況極不可能或完全不可能發生或非常可怕 (讓人不敢再想下去)。注意:這種特殊句型只用於 if 子句。

例句:

  • If I were to lose my job next year, I would probably not find a new one quickly. (如果我明年失業,我可能不會很快找到新的工作) - 失業對我來說是很可怕的事。
  • If Jack were to fail his driving test tomorrow, he would have to take it again. (如果傑克明天的駕照考試沒過,他必須重考) - 傑克的駕照考試極不可能沒過。
  • If Amy were to show up late to the birthday party, it would ruin the surprise. (如果艾美遲遲才在生日派對上現身,這將毀了大家要給她的意外驚喜) - 艾美肯定會準時到場。

“Were to” 用於過去的情

句型

If … were to have + P.P. …, …

用法

“Were to” 可用於過去的時間來強調此條件句所述的情況極不可能或完全不可能發生或非常可怕 (讓人不敢再想下去)。注意:這種特殊句型只用於 if 子句。

例句:

  • If the fire were to have destroyed the building, it would have been a tragic cultural loss. (如果大火燒毀了那棟建築,那會是一項不幸的文化損失) - 一想到這樣的損失就覺得很可怕,不敢再想下去。
  • If the dam were to have burst, the entire town would have been destroyed. (如果水壩潰決,整個城鎮都會被摧毀) - 這樣的破壞太可怕了,讓人不敢想像。
  • If Teresa were to have failed the final test, she would have lost her scholarship. (如果泰瑞莎未能通過期末考,她就會失去她的獎學金) - 泰瑞莎是個優秀傑出的學生,所以她不會通過期末考是極不可能發生的事。

混合條件句

相信讀者對於現在條件句、過去條件句和未來條件句的動詞型態已有相當程度的瞭解。有時非事實條件句會混合使用,亦即 If 子句的時間和結果子句的時間並不相同。下面我們將說明如何像英語母語人士一樣將條件句混合使用。

混合條件句句型

過去條件句 + 現在條件句

例句:

  • If Tim had won the lottery, he would be rich. (如果提姆中了樂透,他一定很富有) - 但提姆之前沒有中樂透,所以他現在並不富有。
  • If Mary had taken Japanese in high school, she would have more job opportunities. (如果瑪麗中學時修過日文,她一定會有比較多的工作機會) - 但瑪麗中學時沒修過日文,所以她現在沒有很多工作機會。
  • If Logan had been born in the United States, he wouldn’t need a visa to work here. (如果羅根是在美國出生,他在這裡工作就不需要簽證) - 但羅根不是在美國出生,所以他現在需要簽證才能在這裡工作。

過去條件句 + 未來條件句

例句:

  • If Peggy had signed up for the safari trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. (如果佩姬上週報名參加這項野外觀獸旅行,明天她將跟我們一起同行) - 但佩姬上週並未報名參加這項野外觀獸旅行,所以明天她不會跟我們一起同行。
  • If Mason had gotten the job instead of Morgan, he would be moving to Tokyo. (如果梅森得到這份工作而不是摩根得到,他將會搬到東京) - 但梅森未得到這份工作,所以他不會搬到東京。
  • If Wesley hadn’t wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas, he would go to Mexico with us next month. (如果衛斯理沒有在拉斯維加斯把他的聖誕節獎金賭輸掉,下個月他將跟我們一起去墨西哥) - 但衛斯理在拉斯維加斯把他的聖誕節獎金賭輸掉了,所以下個月他將不會跟我們一起去墨西哥。

現在條件句 + 過去條件句

例句:

  • If I were rich, I would have bought that Lamborghini we saw the other day. (如果我富有,我已買下幾天前我們看到的那部藍寶堅尼) - 但我現在並不富有,而這就是幾天前我沒有購買那部藍寶堅尼的原因。
  • If Debbie spoke French, she would have translated the letter for me. (如果黛比會說法文,她已幫我翻譯了這封信) - 但黛比不會說法文,而這就是她沒有翻譯這封信的原因。
  • If I didn’t have to work so much, I would have gone to the concert last night. (如果我沒有很多工作要做,昨晚我會去聽演唱會) - 但我有很多工作要做,而這就是昨晚我沒有去聽演唱會的原因。

現在條件句 + 未來條件句

例句:

  • If I didn’t have so much vacation time, I wouldn’t go with you on the cruise to Pescadores next week. (如果我沒有很多休假時間,下週我就不會跟你乘船去澎湖度假) - 但我有很多休假時間,所以下週我將跟你乘船去澎湖度假。
  • If Connie were more creative, the company would send her to Seoul to work on the new advertising campaign. (如果康妮更有創造力,公司將派她到首爾參與新廣告活動的作業) - 但康妮不是很有創造力,所以公司不會派她到首爾參與這項廣告活動。
  • If Benjamin weren’t so nice, he wouldn’t be tutoring you in math tonight. (如果班傑明人沒有這麼好,今晚他就不會當你的數學家教) - 但班傑明人夠好,所以今晚他將當你的數學家教。

未來條件句 + 過去條件句

例句:

  • If I weren’t going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that invitation. (如果下週我沒有要出差,我早已接受那項邀請) - 但下週我要出差,而這就是我沒有接受那項邀請的原因。
  • If my parents weren’t coming this weekend, I would have planned a trip just for the two of us to the Great Wall of China. (如果我的父母親這個週末沒有要來,我早就規劃一趟只有我們兩人的中國長城之旅) - 但我的父母親這個週末要來,而這就是我沒有為我們兩人規劃中國長城之旅的原因。
  • If Lori weren’t making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant. (如果今晚羅莉沒有要為我們準備一頓豐盛的晚餐,我早就建議我們上那家很棒的義大利餐廳) - 但今晚羅莉要為我們準備一頓豐盛的晚餐,而這就是我沒有建議我們上那家義大利餐廳的原因。

未來條件句 + 現在條件句

例句:

  • If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. (如果今晚我要去聽那場演唱會,我會很興奮) - 但今晚我不去聽那場演唱會,而這就是我現在沒有很興奮的原因。
  • If Ava were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. (如果明天艾娃要演講,她會很緊張) - 但明天艾娃沒有要演講,而這就是她現在並不緊張的原因。
  • If Louis didn’t come with us to the Sahara Desert, everyone would be very disappointed. (如果路易士不跟我們一起去撒哈拉沙漠,每個人都會很失望) - 但路易士將跟我們一起去撒哈拉沙漠,而這就是每個人現在都很高興的原因。

進行式條件句

相信讀者對於現在進行式、過去進行式、未來進行式、現在完成進行式、過去完成進行式和未來完成進行式這六種進行式句型都已有相當程度的瞭解。我們可以使用進行式句型來建立進行式事實條件句。但許多英語學習者可能不知道,我們亦可使用進行式句型來建立進行式非事實條件句。下面我們將說明如何建立讓您看起來像英語母語人士的進行式非事實條件句。

現在非事實條件句 + 進行式

句型:

If 子句:were + 現在分詞
結果子句:would be + 現在分詞

用法:

現在非事實條件句 + 進行式係用來敘述可能在此時此刻發生的虛構情況。

If 子句的例句:

  • If the sun were shining, I would go shopping. (如果現在陽光普照,我就去購物) - 可惜的是,現在正下著雨,所以我不能去購物。
  • If Johnny were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves. (如果強尼現在坐在這裡,我們就可以親自問他這問題) - 但強尼現在並沒有坐在這裡。他在別的地方。
  • We would be able to go sailing if the wind were blowing. (如果現在起風,我們就能駕船航行) - 但現在沒有風,所以我們不能駕船航行。

結果子句的例句:

  • If I were in Pescadores, I would be eating delicious seafood. (如果我在澎湖,我現在正在大啖美味的海鮮) - 但我現在不在澎湖。
  • If my mother were here, she would be preparing dinner for me. (如果我母親在這裡,她現在正在為我準備晚餐) - 但她現在不在這裡。
  • I would be swimming in the sea right now if my leg weren’t broken. (如果我的腿沒有斷,我現在正在海泳) - 但我的腿斷了,所以現在我沒有在海泳。

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未來條件句

未來事實條件句

句型:

1. If / When … 現在簡單式 …, … 未來簡單式 …
2. … 未來簡單式 … if / when … 現在簡單式 …

注意:在 when 和 if 子句中,不可使用表示未來的 will 或 be going to。

用法:

未來事實條件句係用來談論你認為在未來某一特定情況中你將會做的事情。它有別於其他事實條件句,因為與現在或過去事實條件句不同的是,你並不知道未來會發生什麼事。雖然這種條件句被稱為「事實條件句」(real conditional),但對於未來通常只是想像或猜測而已。它之所以被稱為「事實」,是因為未來該動作仍有可能發生。請仔細研讀下列的例句並與後面所討論的未來非事實條件句的例句做一比較。

例句:

  • If I go to my friend’s house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers. (如果今晚我去朋友家吃晚餐,我會帶一瓶葡萄酒或一些花) - 現在我還不確定我會不會去他家。
  • When I have a day off from work, I am going to go swimming. (當我休一天假時,我要去游泳) - 我必須等到我有一天的假。
  • If the weather is nice, Mary is going to walk to work. (如果天氣好的話,瑪麗要走路上班) - 是否走路上班將視天氣而定。
  • Harry will help me with my homework when he has time. (當哈利有時間時,他會從旁幫助我做家庭作業) -我必須等到他有時間。
  • I am going to read if there is nothing on TV. (如果電視沒什麼節目好看,我要去看書) - 是否看書將視電視有沒有節目而定。

If / When

在未來事實條件句中,使用 if 或 when 都可以,但這一用法與其他事實條件句的用法有所不同。若使用 if,則表示你不知道某事是否會發生;若使用 when,則表示某事肯定會在未來某個時間點發生;我們只是在等待它的發生。同時要注意的是,在 if 或 when 子句中不可使用表示未來的 will 或 be going to。

例句:

  • When Monica calls me, I will tell her the amount of money. (莫妮卡打電話給我時,我會告訴她金額) - 莫妮卡稍後會打電話給我,到時候我會告訴她金額。
  • If Monica calls me, I will tell her the amount of money. (如果莫妮卡打電話給我,我會告訴她金額) - 如果莫妮卡想知道金額,她可以打電話給我。

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過去條件句

過去事實條件句

句型:

1. If / When … 過去簡單式 …, … 過去簡單式 …
2. … 過去簡單式 … if / when … 過去簡單式 …

用法:

過去事實條件句係用來談論在過去實際生活中經常發生的情況或常做的事情。不過,習慣已經改變,現今通常不做這些事情了。

例句:

  • If my father went to a friend’s house for dinner, he usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. But he doesn’t do that anymore. (如果我父親去朋友家共進晚餐,他通常會帶一瓶葡萄酒或一些花。但他現在不再這麼做了)
  • When I had a day off from work, I often went swimming. Now, I never get time off. (當我休一天假時,我通常會去游泳。現在我都沒有休假)
  • If the weather was nice, Mary often walked to work. Now, she usually drives. (如果天氣好的話,瑪麗經常走路去上班。現在她通常開車)
  • Harry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn’t do that anymore. (當哈利有時間時,他都會從旁幫助我做家庭作業。但他現在不再這麼做了)
  • A: Where did you stay if you went to Beijing? (如果你去北京,你都住哪裡?)
    B: I usually stayed with my aunt. (我通常住我阿姨家)

Used to

Used to 是指過去習慣性和經常性的動作,但現在已經不做或不再發生,也可指過去存在的狀態或情況,但現在已不存在。這片語經常用於過去事實條件句來強調某事是過去的習慣。下面的例句與上面的例句意思並無不同。

例句:

  • If my father went to a friend’s house for dinner, he used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. But he doesn’t do that anymore.
  • When I had a day off from work, I used to go swimming. Now, I never get time off.
  • If the weather was nice, Mary used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.
  • Harry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn’t do that anymore.
  • A: Where did you stay if you went to Beijing?
    B: I used to stay with my aunt.

If / When

在過去事實條件句中,使用 if 或 when 都可以。若使用 if,則表示某事比較不常發生;若使用 when,則表示某事經常發生。

例句:

  • When I had a day off from work, I usually went swimming.
    - 表示我經常有假。
  • If I had a day off from work, I usually went swimming.
    - 表示我很少有假。

過去非事實條件句 (與過去事實相反的條件句)

句型:

1. If … 過去完成式 …, … would have + 過去分詞 …
2. … would have + 過去分詞 … if … 過去完成式 …

用法:

過去非事實條件句係用來談論過去虛構的情況。

例句:

  • If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn’t own one, so I took the bus. (如果我有車,我會開車上班。但我沒有車,所以我搭公車)
  • Janet would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn’t have much money, so she never traveled. (如果珍妮有更多的錢,她會去環遊世界。但她沒有很多錢,所以她從未去旅行)
  • Cindy would have gotten the job and moved to Paris if she had studied French in school instead of Japanese. (如果辛蒂在校時學的是法文而不是日文,那麼她會獲得那份工作並搬到巴黎)
  • If Tony had worked harder, he would have earned more money. Unfortunately, he was lazy and he didn’t earn much. (如果東尼更努力工作,他會賺更多的錢。遺憾的是,他懶惰,所以沒有賺很多錢)
  • A: What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week? (如果你上週中了樂透,你會做什麼?)
    B: I would have bought a mansion. (我會買一間豪宅)
  • A: What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to China? (如果你已決定搬到中國,你會選擇哪個城市?)
    B: I would have chosen Shanghai. (我會選擇上海)

僅能使用 If

過去非事實條件句只能使用 if,不可用 when,因為它談論的是與過去事實相反的虛構情況。

例句:

  • I would have bought that car if it had been cheaper. (如果那部車便宜一點,我會買下它) (正)
  • I would have bought that car when it had been cheaper. (誤)

在過去非事實條件句中,除了 would 外,還可使用 should, could, might 這三個情態助動詞。

例句:

  • If Robert had invited me, I really should have gone. (如果羅伯特邀請我,我真的應該去)
  • If you had gone to Egypt, you could have learned Arabic. (如果你去埃及,你就能學阿拉伯語)
  • If Cindy had had time, she might have gone to the party. (如果辛蒂有時間,她可能參加派對)

現在條件句

現在事實條件句

句型:

1. If / When … 現在簡單式 …, … 現在簡單式 …
2. … 現在簡單式 … if / when … 現在簡單式 …

用法:

現在事實條件句係用來談論現實生活中經常發生的情況或常做的事情。

例句:

  • If my father goes to a friend’s house for dinner, he usually takes a bottle of wine or some flowers. (如果我父親去朋友家共進晚餐,他通常會帶一瓶葡萄酒或一些花)
  • When I have a day off from work, I often go swimming. (當我休一天假時,我通常去游泳)
  • If the weather is nice, Mary walks to work. (如果天氣好的話,瑪麗都是走路去上班)
  • Harry helps me with my homework when he has time. (當哈利有時間時,他都會從旁幫助我做家庭作業)
  • A: Where do you stay if you go to Beijing? (如果你去北京,你都住哪裡?)
    B: I stay with my aunt. (我都住我阿姨家)

If / When

在現在事實條件句中,使用 if 或 when 都可以。若使用 if,則表示某事比較不常發生;若使用 when,則表示某事經常發生。

例句:

  • When I have a day off from work, I often go swimming.
    - 表示我經常有假。
  • If I have a day off from work, I often go swimming.
    - 表示我很少有假。

現在非事實條件句 (與現在事實相反的條件句)

句型:

1. If … 過去簡單式 …, … would + 動詞 …
2. … would + 動詞 … if … 過去簡單式 …

用法:

現在非事實條件句係用來談論現在虛構的情況。

例句:

  • If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don’t own a car. (如果我有車,我會開車上班。但我沒有車)
  • Janet would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn’t have much money. (如果珍妮有更多的錢,她會去環遊世界。但她沒有很多錢)
  • I would move to South Korea if I spoke Korean. (如果我會說韓語,我會搬到南韓)
  • If he studied harder, he would pass the exam. (如果他再用功一點,他會通過考試)
  • A: What would you do if you won the lottery? (如果你中樂透,你會做什麼?)
    B: I would buy a mansion. (我會買一間豪宅)

在現在非事實條件句中,所有 BE 動詞一律使用 were,不可用 was,因為 was 被視為文法錯誤,所以在寫作或考試的情況中一定都要使用 were。然而,在日常會話中,我們經常使用 was。

例句:

  • If he were Japanese, he would live in Kyoto. (如果他是日本人,他會住在京都)
  • If Rachel were rich, she would buy a plane. (如果瑞秋富有,她會買一架飛機)
  • I would play basketball if I were taller. (如果我高一點,我會去打籃球)
  • I would buy that car if it were cheaper. (如果那部車便宜一點,我會買下它)
  • I would buy that car if it was cheaper. (誤) - 但經常用於會話中。

僅能使用 If

現在非事實條件句只能使用 if,不可用 when,因為它談論的是與現在事實相反的虛構情況。

例句:

  • I would buy that car if it were cheaper. (正)
  • I would buy that car when it were cheaper. (誤)

在現在非事實條件句中,除了 would 外,還可使用 should, could, might 這三個情態助動詞。

例句:

  • If Robert invited me, I really should go. (如果羅伯特邀請我,我真的應該去)
  • If you went to Egypt, you could learn Arabic. (如果你去埃及,你就能學阿拉伯語)
  • If Cindy had time, she might go to the party. (如果辛蒂有時間,她可能參加派對)

Q:在 If John were a good student, he would have studied for the exam yesterday. 這條件句中,if 子句和結果子句分別為與現在和過去事實相反,這樣對嗎?

A:這當然對! 在問題的條件句中,If John were a good student (如果約翰是個好學生) 是個與現在事實相反的 if 子句,而 he would have studied for the exam yesterday (他昨天就會為考試用功讀書) 則是個與過去事實相反的結果子句。事實上,這種過去與現在時間混合的條件句頗為常見。

一般而言,if 子句和結果子句所表示的時間都是一致的,即兩個子句都是與現在或過去事實相反。例如:

與現在事實相反的條件句:

  • If I were you, I would marry Rachel. (如果我是你,我會跟瑞秋結婚)
  • If I had enough money, I would buy a house. (如果我有足夠的錢,我會買一間房子)
  • If I had enough money, I could buy a house. (如果我有足夠的錢,我可能買一間房子)
    - 在上面的例句中,would 是表示想要或可預測的結果,而 could 表示一個可能的結果。

與過去事實相反的條件句:

  • If Bill had studied, he would have passed the exam. (如果比爾用功讀書,他已經通過考試)
  • If I had had enough money, I would have bought a house. (如果我有足夠的錢,我會買一間房子)
  • If I had had enough money, I could have bought a house. (如果我有足夠的錢,我可能買一間房子)
    - 同樣地,在上面的例句中,would 是表示想要或可預測的結果,而 could 表示一個可能的結果。

然而,如上述,過去與現在時間混合的條件句亦所在多有。例如:

  • If Mary had eaten dinner, she wouldn’t be hungry now. (如果瑪麗有吃晚餐,她現在就不會餓)
  • If I were you, I would have told her the truth. (如果我是你,我會對她說實話)

Q:在動詞 hope + (that) 子句的結構中,有沒有 will 的意義有何差別?

A:hope 實際上是個很有彈性的動詞,我們通常將 hope 與簡單現在式連用來表示未來的意思。例如:

  • I hope that you pass your exam. (我希望你通過考試)

這好像第一條件句 (first conditional — 參見文末的附註),如 If you need anything, I will get it for you. (如果你需要任何東西,我可以幫你拿)。但在某些上下文中,也有可能使用 will。例如:

  • I hope that you will be able to be a student of National Taiwan University. (我希望你能成為台大的學生)
  • I hope that you’ll visit us again in the near future. (我希望不久的將來你能再度來訪)

在幾乎所有 hope + (that) 子句的結構中,will 都可用簡單現在式來取代,兩者的意義幾乎或完全一樣,但反之則不然。例如:

  1. I hope that he has his passport with him. (我希望他有帶護照)
  2. I hope that he will have his passport with him.

第 1 句不可改成第 2 句,因為前者有現在和未來的意思,但後者只有未來的意思。

所以,「hope + 簡單現在式」比「hope + will」要來得有彈性,但有時它們的意思是一樣的。再看一些例句:

  • They hope that you’ll remember your promise. (他們希望你記得你的承諾)
    They hope that you remember your promise.
    上面這兩句的意思幾乎相同。
  • I hope that you agree to the proposal. (我希望你接受這項提案)
    這句的意思可能是你已經看過或聽過該提案,但如果有人說:
  • I hope that you will agree to the proposal. (我希望你會接受這項提案)
    這句的意思比較不可能表示你已經看過提案,或許該提案都還未提出。

hope 亦可跟現在進行式連用,此時現在式與未來式之間的意思就有比較明顯的差異。例如:

  • I hope that you’re thinking of me. (我希望你正在想我)
    這句顯然是指我希望你現在正在想我,但
  • I hope that you’ll be thinking of me.
    這句顯然是指在未來的某個時間想我。

所以,在此可做個結論:我們最好使用「hope + 簡單現在式」,因為這比較有彈性,可以表示現在和未來的意思;但只有在你非常肯定你要表達的是未來的意思時才使用「hope + will」。

附註:英文第一條件句的句型是「If + S + 簡單現在式, S + will + 原形動詞」,係表示未來極有可能發生的情況;第二條件句 (second conditional) 就是與現在事實相反的條件句,而第三條件句 (third conditional) 則是與過去事實相反的條件句。