Forceful, forcible, forced (adjs.)

這三個形容詞意思不同但有關連。Forceful 意為「有說服力的;堅強的,強有力的」,如 The president made a forceful speech. (總統發表了具說服力的演說或談話);a forceful speaker (有說服力的演說者或談話者);a forceful personality (堅強的性格);The main opposition leader led a very forceful attack on the government in parliament yesterday. (主要反對黨領袖昨天在國會對政府發動強有力的抨擊);而 forceful measures (強有力的措施) 可能涉及使用身體力量或暴力去執行動作,但也可能沒有。

Forcible 意為「強行的;使用暴力的」,如 The police had to make a forcible entry into the house where the robbers were hiding. (警察不得不強行進入搶匪藏身的那棟房子);There’s a law to protect refugees from forcible repatriation to countries where they face persecution. (有法律保護難民,以免他們被強制遣返回國遭到迫害)。這個字一定是指使用身體力量或暴力去執行動作。

Forced 意為「被迫的,不得已的;勉強的,不自然的」,如 The plane had to make a forced landing because two of its engines were on fire. (由於有兩具引擎著火,飛機不得不迫降);Amy tried hard to smile but it looked forced. (艾美努力微笑,但看起來笑得很勉強)。A forced landing (迫降) 是我們經常見到的片語,而 a forced smile (勉強的微笑) 和 forced labor (強迫勞動) 也經常應用於日常生活中。

值得注意的是,forcible repatriation 亦可寫成 forced repatriation,視從執行遣返或被迫遣返的觀點而定,但都違反了被遣返者的意願。