Other, others, the other, another

Other 作限定詞用

Other 作限定詞用時後接不可數名詞和複數可數名詞,意為「另外的;額外的;更多的;別的;其他的;不同的」。例如:

  • In addition to Amy, Mrs. Smith has two other children. (除了艾美,史密斯太太還有另外兩個孩子)
  • There are other ways to perform this task. (還有別的方法可執行這項任務)
  • The company website has general information about its new products. Other detailed information can be obtained by calling the freephone number. (該公司網站提供其新產品的一般性資訊。其他詳細的資訊可打這支免費電話取得)
  • Some music is soothing; other music has the opposite effect. (有些音樂具有撫慰作用;其他音樂則效果相反)

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No more, not any more

No more 和 not any more 均意為「不再」,可當限定詞和副詞用,但 no more 比較正式。例如:

No more, not any more 當限定詞

  • I will watch no more Korean dramas. (我不會再看韓劇)
  • I won’t watch any more Korean dramas.
  • There’s no more milk left. I’d better go and buy some more. (牛奶都喝完了。我最好去再買一些)
  • There isn’t any more milk left. I’d better go buy some more.

No more, not any more 當副詞

  • All the problems have been solved. You should worry no more. (所有問題都已解決。你應該不用再擔心了)
  • Amy and Helen used to be good friends, but they don’t like each other any more. (= any longer) (艾美和海倫過去是好朋友,但現在已不再是了)

No more than, not any more than

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Enough 的用法

Enough 可當限定詞、代名詞和副詞用,意為「足夠 (的/地)」,其主要句型為 enough for somebody/something、enough to do something 及 enough for somebody/something to do something。

Enough 當限定詞時後接複數可數名詞或不可數名詞。例如:

  • The conference room has enough seats for everyone. (會議室有足夠的座位給每個人坐)
  • We’ve seen enough television repeats. (我們已看了夠多的電視重播)
  • I usually don’t get enough sleep. (我經常睡眠不足)
  • There was enough food for about five people. (食物夠大約五個人吃)

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Such 還是 so 呢?

Such 和 so 的用法都需要相當大的篇幅才能說明清楚。本文僅就這兩者同義的「如此,這麼;很,非常」(to this degree; very) 的意思來說明一般使用上常見的錯誤。就此意思而言,such 為限定詞,後接名詞片語,而 so 為副詞,後接形容詞或副詞片語。

不過,在此有需要先說明一下名詞片語的結構。完整的名詞片語主要是由三個元素所構成:不定冠詞 (a/an) + 形容詞 + 名詞,其中名詞一定會有,但名詞若為複數可數名詞或不可數名詞,那麼該名詞片語就不會有不定冠詞,而形容詞可能存在、也可能不存在,所以最精簡的名詞片語可能只有名詞一個元素而已。

現在就來看看一般在使用 such 或 so 時常見的錯誤。例如:

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Neither of ≠ Both (of) + not

Neither 可當連接詞、副詞、限定詞和代名詞用,這裡要談的是 neither 當限定詞和代名詞的用法,表示兩者中沒有任何一個,即「兩者都不」。例如:

  • Neither answer is correct. (兩個答案都不對) - neither 在此當限定詞用,後接單數可數名詞。
  • Neither of the answers is/are correct. (兩個答案都不對) - neither 在此當代名詞用。用作代名詞的 neither 後接複數名詞時,在正式書面文件中,動詞通常用單數形式,但在口語或非正式文件中,動詞通常用複數形式。Either 的代名詞用法亦同。

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一個句子使用了 11 個 that,其中 7 個還連在一起,但它仍有意義且語法正確

下句總共使用了 11 個 that,其中 7 個還連在一起,但它仍是個有意義且語法正確的句子 (以下稱為「本句」)。本句不僅以實例來呈現 that 的不同用法,而且使用 “it’s true (that)” 句型來說明,儘管都是 that,但吾人不能一體適用地看待所有 that 或任何 that,因為此 that 往往非彼 that。

It is true for all that that that that that that that refers to is not the same that that that that refers to.

現在就來說明這 11 個 that 在句中的詞類和用法。為了避免混淆,筆者依序在它們的後面加上阿拉伯數字。

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Each 和 every 你完全分得清楚嗎?

不少人迄今仍無法把 each 和 every 分得一清二楚!Each 可用作代名詞和形容詞 (限定詞),指兩個或兩個以上之中的每一個;著重個別的情況,指若干固定數目中的每一個。Every 僅能用作形容詞,僅可指三個或三個以上之中的每一個,不能指兩個之中的每一個;著重整體的全部情況,指任何一個 (其中沒有一個例外)。例如:

  • Each of you has a job to do. (你們每個人都有工作要做) (正)
  • Every of you has a job to do. (你們每個人都有工作要做) (誤)
  • John had a cut on each hand/each of his hands. (約翰每隻手上都有傷口) (正)
  • John had a cut on every one of his toes. (約翰的每根腳指都有傷口) (正)
  • Taiwan, China, and South Korea every won two gold medals. (台灣、中國和南韓各得兩面金牌) (誤)
  • Each boy gets a prize. (每個男孩都得到一份獎品) (正)
  • Every boy gets a prize. (所有男孩都得到獎品) (正)
  • I have read every book in the school. (我已讀過學校裡的所有書籍) (正)
  • Each dog has a name. (每一隻狗都有牠自己的名字) (正)
  • Every dog has a name. (所有狗都有名字) (正)

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All of the + 名詞中的 of 是贅字

在「all of the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」的句型中,all 是不定代名詞 (indefinite pronoun),如 All of these students live in Taipei. (這些學生全都住在台北);All of his money is spent on food. (他的錢全都花在食物上)。由於 of 可以省略,上述句型就變成「all the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」,此時 all 變成 (前置) 限定詞 (determiner or pre-determiner),如 All these students live in Taipei.;All his money is spent on food.。雖然 all 後面有沒有 of 都可以,文法都沒有錯,但許多人認為 all of … 的寫法不夠簡潔,因為 of 一點作用都沒有,是不折不扣的贅字。所以,

  • All my students are female.
    All of my students are female. (我的學生全都是女生) (欠佳) - of 是贅字。
  • I want to hear all the details.
    I want to hear all of the details. (我想要聽所有的細節) (欠佳) - of 是贅字。

然而,如果將「all of the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」中的「the/these/those/所有格 + 名詞」換成人稱代名詞的受格 (us, you, them, it),那麼 of 不能省略,否則就犯了大錯。例如:

  1. All of us must attend the meeting. (我們全都要參加這項會議)
  2. All of you need to buy me a coffee. (你們全都要請我喝杯咖啡)
  3. All of them can speak Japanese. (他們全都會講日語)
  4. He’d like all of us to get there. (他希望我們全都去那裡)
  5. I’ve invited all of them to my birthday party. (我已邀請他們全都來參加我的生日派對)

不過,若「all of + 人稱代名詞」當主詞用,那麼它可改寫為不用 of 的「人稱代名詞主格 + all」;若「all of + 人稱代名詞」當受詞用,那麼它可改寫為不用 of 的「人稱代名詞受格 + all」。茲將上面 5 句改寫如下,上下對應句之間的意思完全一樣且都是標準英語:

  1. We all must attend the meeting.
  2. You all need to buy me a coffee.
  3. They all can speak Japanese.
  4. He’d like us all to get there.
  5. I’ve invited them all to my birthday party.

Q:在 I want to invite all of them. 這句中,all 後面的 of 可以省略嗎?

A:不可以! 大多數人可能都認為,由於 all of + 名詞時,of 可以省略 (both of 和 half of 的情況亦然),因此在所有 all of 的句型或用法中,都可以將 of 省略,非也! 這僅適用於 all of 後接 the, our, your, this, those, his, her 等限定詞、再接名詞的情況,若是接 us, you, them, it, him 和 her 等 (受格) 代名詞,那麼 of 就不能省略,否則就大錯特錯了。例如:

  • All of you must go there. (正) (你們所有人都要去那裡)
  • I want to invite all of them. (正) (我想邀請他們全部)
  • A: Where is my cake? (我的蛋糕哪裡去了?)
    B: I’ve eaten all it. (誤) (我把它全部吃光了) - all it 須改為 all of it 才對。

有人可能會質疑,在 All you need is a good night’s sleep. (你所需要的不過是晚上好好睡一覺) 這句中,all 跟 you 之間不是沒有 of 嗎? 這也是不明就裡的說法。在此句中,all 為代名詞,而 you need 為省略關代 that 的關係子句,修飾 all,不可混為一談。

現在我們就來詳細說明 all 的用法,以免掛一漏萬、瞎子摸象,似是而非。All 可用作限定詞 (determiner,或者說形容詞)、前置限定詞 (pre-determiner)、代名詞或副詞。

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Q:(a) Most books (b) Most my books (c) Most of my books are in English. 這三句何者正確呢?

A:Most 這個字可當形容詞和代名詞用,若為形容詞,其後直接接名詞,如 Most birds can fly. (大多數的鳥都會飛),所以 (a) Most books are in English. (大部分的書都是英文書) 這句是對的。在這句中,名詞 books 並非指特定的書,如「我的書」、「這些書」、「那張桌子上的書」,而是泛指 (generic) 一般的書。

當 most 用作代名詞時,其後往往接介詞 of 再接特定或特指的 (specific) 名詞。所謂特指的名詞,就是名詞的前面加上 the, that, this, these, those 或所有格,如 my, his, their, Jack’s, Thomas’ 等等。所以 (c) Most of my books are in English. 也是正確的句子;換言之,(b) Most my books are in English. 這句是錯的,因為如果名詞是特指,most 後面的 of 不能省略。然而,如果名詞是泛指,則 most 後面就不能有 of,這就是上述 most 當形容詞用,後面直接接名詞的情況,所以 Most of books are in English. 也是錯的。

英文中這種兼具形容詞 (或限定詞) 和代名詞功能且用法與 most 完全相同的字或片語,還有 all (of), both (of), some (of), any (of), many (of), much (of), a few (of), a little (of), several (of), one (of), two (of), three (of) … 等等。例如:

  • Many students are going to study abroad. (正) (許多學生要出國留學)
    Many of my students are going to study abroad. (正) (我的學生當中有許多人要出國留學)
    Many my students are going to study abroad. (誤)
    Many of students are going to study abroad. (誤)
  • Some people are Chinese tourists. (正) (有些人是中國觀光客)
    Some of those people are Chinese tourists. (正) (那些人當中有些是中國觀光客)
    Some those people are Chinese tourists. (誤)
    Some of people are Chinese tourists. (誤)
  • Several windows were broken. (正) (有幾扇窗戶被砸破了)
    Several of the windows were broken. (正)
    Several the windows were broken. (誤)
    Several of windows were broken. (誤)

值得注意的是,當名詞為特指時,all 和 both 這兩個字後面的 of 可以省略,亦即它們後面的 of 可有可無。不過,若名詞為泛指,則其後同樣不可有 of。例如:

  • Almost all of my students are female. (正) (我的學生幾乎都是女生)
    Almost all my students are female. (正)
    All children deserve encouragement. (正) (所有的小孩都應得到鼓勵)
    All of children deserve encouragement. (誤)
  • I know both of his parents. (正) (我認識他的父母親)
    I know both his parents. (正)
    Both paintings are by the same artist. (正) (兩幅畫都是同一畫家畫的)
    Both of paintings are by the same artist. (誤)

最後要提的是,half 這個亦可當形容詞 (或限定詞) 和代名詞用的字,若接特指的名詞,其用法與 all 和 both 相同,亦即後面的 of 也是可有可無。例如:

  • Half of the children study Japanese. (正) (這些孩子當中有一半學日文)
    Half the children study Japanese. (正)
  • Nearly half of the employees complained of stress. (正) (近半數的員工抱怨壓力太大)
    Nearly half the employees complained of stress. (正)