Same、similar 和 identical 的用法

Same 可當形容詞和代名詞用,前者意為「同一的;相同的;一樣的」,後者意為「相同的人;相同的事物」,指的是兩個或多個人事物完全相同。當我們使用 same 來比較人事物時,其前須有定冠詞 the。例如:

  • John and I went to the same school. (約翰和我曾在同一所學校唸書) (正)
    John and I went to same school. (誤)
  • These two tables are not the same. (這兩張桌子並不一樣) (正)
    These two tables are not same. (誤)

The same as

The same 後面是接 as 不是 that 或 than。例如:

  • I treat daughters exactly the same as sons. (我對女兒和兒子完全一視同仁) (正)
    I treat daughters exactly the same that sons. (誤)
    I treat daughters exactly the same than sons. (誤)
  • My new jacket is the same model as my old one. (我新外套的款式與舊外套一樣) (正)
    My new jacket is the same model that my old one. (誤)
    My new jacket is the same model than my old one. (誤)

The same + 名詞 + 子句
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One of + 複數名詞 + 關代 + 複數動詞

  • John is one of the few persons who know Spanish in our company. (約翰是我們公司裡少數懂西班牙文者之一) (正)
  • John is one of the few persons who knows Spanish in our company. (誤)

解說:先行詞是人,關係子句中的關係代名詞要用 who。先行詞是 one of + 複數名詞時,關係子句中的述語動詞要跟複數名詞一致,而不是跟 one 一致,所以要用複數動詞。

先行詞為人 + 事物時,關代要用 that

  • My daughter loves anybody and anything that is pretty. (我女兒喜歡任何漂亮的人事物) (正)
  • My daughter loves anybody and anything which is pretty. (誤)
  • My daughter loves anything and anybody who is pretty. (誤)

解說:當先行詞為人時,關係代名詞可以用 who 或 that;當先行詞為事物時,關係代名詞可以用 which 或 that;所以,當先行詞有兩個,一個是人, 一個是事物時,關代只能用 that。另一種判斷方式是,當先行詞為不定代詞時,關代要用 that。

Else 的用法

Else 是個副詞,可用在以 any-、every-、no- 和 some- 開頭的一群字後面來表示「其他;別的;另外」的意思。這群字包括 anybody、everybody、nobody、somebody、anyone、everyone、no one、someone、anything、everything、nothing、something 等不定代名詞以及 anywhere、everywhere、nowhere、somewhere (或美國口語的 anyplace、everyplace、no place、someplace) 等副詞。例如:

  • Anybody else would have condemned his foolish behavior. (換了誰都會譴責他的愚蠢行為)
  • Owen stayed at work when everybody else had gone home. (別人都回家了,歐文還在工作)
  • No one else can do it. (沒有其他人能做這件事了)
  • Tracy married someone else. (崔西嫁給別人了)
  • Is there anything else I can do for you? (我還能為你做什麼事嗎?)
  • There is nothing else on the desk except a sheet of paper. (書桌上除了一張紙外沒有其他東西)
  • Did you go anywhere else last night? (你昨晚有沒有到別的地方?)
  • If we don’t provide a good service, customers will go somewhere else. (如果我們服務不好,顧客就會到別的地方)
  • This animal is not found anyplace else in the world. (這種動物在世界其他地方都沒有)
  • You’ll have to sit someplace else. (你必須坐別的地方)

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Who’s 和 whose 的差異

Who’s 和 whose 的發音相同,但在英文中扮演截然不同的角色。不過,有些人還是三不五時會被這兩個常用詞所搞混,令人遺憾。Who’s 為 who is 或 who has 的縮寫,而 whose 為 who 的所有格,通常位在名詞前面,但它還可用作關係代名詞。

Who’s 的例句:

  • Who’s coming to fix the computer? (誰來修理電腦?) (正) - Who’s = who is。
  • Who’s Mary talking about? (瑪麗正在說誰?) (正) - Who’s = who is。
  • Who’s eaten the last apple? (誰吃了最後一個蘋果?) (正) - Who’s = who has。
  • Who’s John brought to my class? (約翰帶誰來上我的課?) (正) - Who’s = who has。
  • Whose John brought to my class? (誤)
  • You’ll soon know who’s who in this department. (你很快就會知道這個部門裡面誰是誰) (正) - who’s = who is。
    註:Who’s who 也是個片語,意為「名人錄;(總稱) 名人」,用作單數,如 a who’s who of the fashion industry (時裝界的名人錄)。

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Cleft sentences 中的關代不能用 which

  • It is books that are a key to the wide world. (書正是通往廣闊世界之鑰) (正)
  • It is books which are a key to the wide world. (誤)

解說:這是一種所謂「分裂句」(cleft sentences) 的強調句型 (It is/was + 被強調部分 + that 子句)。在此句型中,that 子句前的先行詞若是人,則 that 也可用 who 或 whom 來代替,其餘情況只能用 that,不能用其他關係代名詞。

一個句子使用了 11 個 that,其中 7 個還連在一起,但它仍有意義且語法正確

下句總共使用了 11 個 that,其中 7 個還連在一起,但它仍是個有意義且語法正確的句子 (以下稱為「本句」)。本句不僅以實例來呈現 that 的不同用法,而且使用 “it’s true (that)” 句型來說明,儘管都是 that,但吾人不能一體適用地看待所有 that 或任何 that,因為此 that 往往非彼 that。

It is true for all that that that that that that that refers to is not the same that that that that refers to.

現在就來說明這 11 個 that 在句中的詞類和用法。為了避免混淆,筆者依序在它們的後面加上阿拉伯數字。
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Q:在 I’ll face the fact that my girlfriend will move to Taipei tomorrow. 中,the fact that 的語法功能為何呢?

A:這句的意思為「我將要面對我女友明天搬到台北的事實」。儘管中文翻譯有「事實」二字,但它並非 “the fact” 的翻譯,而是筆者為了讓中文翻譯變得通順而加入的,因為 the fact that 中的 the fact 雖具有舉足輕重的語法功能,但本身並無意義。

The fact that 的語法功能有下列三項,其對英文寫作的幫助尤其宏大:

一、用來引導名詞子句

在許多情況中,當 that 所引導的名詞子句比較複雜時,若直接將其置於句首當主詞,可能會顯得「頭重腳輕」。這時我們通常使用形式主詞或虛主詞 it 來代替 that 子句,而將 that 子句置於句末。注意:that 子句當主詞時,動詞須用單數。例如:

  • That my son has passed all the exams makes me feel very happy.
    = It makes me feel very happy that my son has passed all the exams. (我兒子已通過所有考試,令我很高興)
  • That he lost his job suddenly worried his parents very much.
    = It worried his parents very much that he lost his job suddenly. (他突然失業,使他的父母非常憂慮)
  • That she did not go to Cindy’s birthday party surprised everybody.
    =It surprised everybody that she did not go to Cindy’s birthday party. (她未參加辛蒂的生日派對,讓大家很驚訝)

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